History of Anabolic SteroidsAnabolic steroidsalso known more properly as anabolic—androgenic steroids AAS are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone. They are anabolic and increase protein within cellsespecially in skeletal musclesand also have varying degrees of androgenic and virilizing effects, including induction of the development and maintenance of masculine secondary sexual characteristics rhe as the growth of facial and body hair. Androgens or The history of anabolic steroids are one of three types of sex hormone agoniststhe histoty being estrogens like estradiol and progestogens like progesterone. AAS were synthesized in the s, and are now used anabolix in medicine to stimulate the history of anabolic steroids growth and appetiteinduce male puberty and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS. The American College of Sports Medicine acknowledges that AAS, in the presence of adequate diet, can contribute to increases in body weightoften as lean mass increases and that the gains in muscular the history of anabolic steroids achieved through high-intensity exercise and proper diet can be additionally increased by the use of AAS in some individuals. Health risks can be produced by long-term ajabolic or excessive doses of AAS.
The History of the Development of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids - ScienceDirect
The history of anabolic steroids dates its beginnings farther back than most people would expect to think. The fact of the matter is that anabolic steroids are very natural products of the human body, and the use of anabolic steroids for any purpose is simply the act of inserting more of what our bodies already produce inside of us.
With this being said, the origins of anabolic steroids and their use for the purposes of performance enhancement date back into antiquity. The major mainstream and widespread use of anabolic steroids — including the development of countless variants and analogues — has only existed since approximately years ago, at the beginning of the 20 th century.
Although the actual use of anabolic steroids can be traced back several thousand years ago in antiquity, it was not until the modern period of the 19 th and 20 th centuries that anabolic steroids begun to be fully understood, slowly but surely over this year period.
Testosterone is the absolute number one primary anabolic steroid that is naturally produced by the human body, as well as nearly all other animal species. However, it was not understood how or why this was exactly the case until the modern period around the 19 th century. Prior to this period, it was simply understood that the testicles were a crucial component for these factors.
This sculpture was drawn in long before anyone heard of steroids! Back then, guys like this got big and lean naturally! This photo along with this caption could not be any further from the truth!
The use of the anabolic steroid Testosterone, which is produced by the testes, can be dated back as far as BC and perhaps thousands of years prior where the ancient Greek Olympic athletes and competitors would consume the testes of sheep and bulls in large quantities.
Unbeknownst to these athletes, they were actually orally ingesting large amounts of the anabolic steroid Testosterone contained within — of course, this was not understood by those athletes consuming the testicles, and the athletes simply recognized there was a correlation between the consumption of animal testicles and an increase in strength and performance.
Ancient athletes indeed did consume anabolic steroids — it was just not properly understood as to what exactly they were doing or why it resulted in the changes experienced. Because it has been known that the testicles play a key role in the maintenance and development of everything related to male masculine characteristics, in the mid-late 16 th century it was understood that castration resulted in the disappearance of these male characteristics including muscle and strength.
Therefore, castration became a practice beginning in 16 th century Italy where young boys prior to puberty or in the early stages of puberty would undergo castration in order to achieve a high pitched soprano singing voice in the opera.
These castrated individuals who performed in the opera were known as Castrati plural for Castrato. Once again, the function of the testicles in the development of the male secondary sex characteristic of a deepened voice was unknown to these people during this time period, but it was understood that the testicles played a key role here and that the removal of them prevented male development.
Enter the 19 th century. It was during this time period that the first major discoveries concerning Testosterone and its other related androgens such as Dihydrotestosterone , etc.
Various animal experiments at this time were conducted and published that could be described in simple terms as trial and error experiments. These experiments involved the removal of testicles from various animal test subjects and the re-application of them, and the various changes that resulted from these experiments were observed. These experiments allowed scientists and the medical establishment to finally garner a more complete understanding of the role that the testicles play in the development and maintenance of the male species of animals.
This is essentially where the origins of the study of hormones began, which is known in the medical field as Endocrinology. One key doctor who conducted many of these experiments was a doctor and zoologist by the name of Arnold Adolph Berthold in Germany, who conducted these experiments on birds and chickens. Without these experiments, it may not have been possible for the further discovery and development of anabolic steroids to have occurred. Toward the beginning of the 20 th century in the late s and s, the very first discovery and isolations of androgens had occurred through the filtration of urine samples to locate and isolate hormones, or from extraction directly from the testicles.
It was from this that the very first although extremely basic hormonal injection preparations were developed, but it would not be until a short time later that the real full-scale research and development of anabolic steroids would be underway. It is important to note, however, that the body contains several different androgenic hormones in addition to the commonly known Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone.
Because of the wide array of hormones where the testes are concerned, the discovery and isolation of androgens does not necessarily refer to the discovery and isolation of Testosterone itself.
It may refer to a precursor hormone or a very androgenic hormone extremely similar to Testosterone but used for a different function, such as Androstenone, which was discovered and isolated before Testosterone had been. It was during the early portion of the 20 th century during the s where some of the most major discoveries concerning Testosterone and various anabolic steroids took place.
In , a chemist in Marburg, Germany by the name of Adolf Butenandt isolated 15 milligrams of the androgen Androstenone from massive amounts of urine samples. It was then synthesized in by a chemist by the name of Leopold Ruzicka, also a German scientist. However, at this time it was known that there contained a far stronger and primary androgen within the testes than Androstenone — but it had not yet been identified or discovered.
The race to discover what exactly this androgen was was now underway. Three scientific teams that were lead and funded by some major pharmaceutical companies located in the Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Germany took upon the task to discover and isolate this androgen. In August of that same year, Butenandt and G. Hanisch then successfully discovered a method of synthesizing Testosterone from Cholesterol.
It is important to understand that at this point, it was the discovery, isolation, and synthesis of Testosterone that had been completed. Its effects, benefits, and use in an almost infinite amount of applications were at this time unknown and yet to be discovered at that point. Ruzicka and Butenandt were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for their efforts in these discoveries.
Following the discovery and synthesis of Testosterone in , the applications of Testosterone were now making headway at full steam. In , synthetic preparations of Testosterone in the form of Testosterone Propionate were administered to test subject in human clinical trials. During this same time in , an orally bioavailable form of Testosterone, Methyltestosterone, was also being administered orally to test subjects in clinical trials. The anticipated result would be an army that could not be challenged by any other country.
Hitler had driven the Nazi scientific industry to venture into developing a useable drug that could allow a soldier to withstand arduous physical exertion and at the same time a state of malnourishment with the added benefits of accelerated wound recovery and healing — all factors that Testosterone can be said to provide. Unfortunately the extent of the research into anabolic steroid use in Nazi Germany at the time occurred far too late, travelled in a direction far too distant from the goal, and general research into Testosterone applications was in its infancy.
Research continued through the late s and the s surrounding Testosterone and its benefits and applications. Following World War II, the Soviet Union was the first nation to place a firm grasp on Testosterone and anabolic steroid use, and carry its research farther before any other country had caught on to the benefits of Testosterone use and its various applications. By grasping this head start, the Soviet Union could maintain a clear advantage in many different areas and did so for the most part during the late s and s.
The primary and most popularly known area where this could be seen was that of the Olympics, where the Eastern Bloc and the Soviet Union were the first to use Testosterone to enhance the strength and performance of their Olympic athletes. The Cold War had been well underway by , and it has been said that the struggle between the East and West during the Cold War for superiority in every arena was one of the primary driving factors for the development and application of anabolic steroids.
The Soviet Union had dominated completely through the s Olympic Games, especially in activities where strength had been a primary determining factor. American Olympic athletes were losing by an extreme margin to the Soviet athletes.
One doctor working for the US Olympic weight lifting team at this time was a doctor by the name of John Ziegler. Ziegler and a team of scientists and doctors investigated and conducted various studies on the Soviet athletes those that had defected to the United States. It was discovered through this research and study that the Soviet athletes had been administered exogenous Testosterone. In response to this, John Ziegler and his team had set out to develop an anabolic steroid that would exhibit reduced androgenic effects and possibly provide even greater anabolic effects.
In addition to its use as a performance enhancing drug, its other applications included common administration to burn victims for enhanced healing, and elderly patients for assistance with a multitude of medical issues. It was during this time period of anabolic steroid development that Nandrolone and Dihydrotestosterone which are two naturally occurring compounds as opposed to modified compounds that are not produced by the human body, such as Dianabol were discovered and synthesized.
This was the time period where scientists and doctors realized that the various effecting properties of Testosterone anabolic, estrogenic, and androgenic could be modified and augmented by adjusting and altering the chemical structure. By the s, literally thousands of different anabolic steroid analogues of Testosterone, Nandrolone, and Dihydrotestosterone were created. The other two anabolic steroids that occur naturally that analogues are also derived from are Nandrolone and Dihydrotestosterone.
While new anabolic steroid analogues were being created daily throughout the mids to the s, the International Olympic Committee IOC had grown increasing concern over the use of anabolic steroids by Olympic athletes, which were now being used by the athletes of nearly all countries participating. What is interesting to note, however, is that it was during this time and all the way up until the early s that the overwhelming majority of the medical establishment had consistently stated that anabolic steroids provided no benefit to athletes or improvements for athletic performance.
Following these bans in sports and regulations, athletes would now seek methods to avoid, skirt, and fool the drug testing programs. Some of these methods included simple practices such as utilizing anabolic steroids that do not result in metabolites that linger for extended periods of time, or anabolic steroids that are basic and clear the body within a matter of days.
Testosterone is one such example, as the IOC testing procedures for detecting Testosterone simply test what is known as the Testosterone: Epitestosterone is an epimer of Testosterone, and the levels of Epitestosterone do not change in the body in relation to Testosterone.
If testing displays that Testosterone levels are drastically higher than Epitestosterone levels in the body, then it is a strong indication that the athlete in question has been administering Testosterone. However, anabolic steroids such as Testosterone suspension or Testosterone Propionate clear the body in as little as a matter of days — thus allowing the athlete to skirt possible drug tests in a short time frame.
This is in contrast with other anabolic steroids such as Nandrolone, where the metabolites of Nandrolone are tested for during drug tests, and the metabolites of a compound will linger in the body for a time after administration of the substance. In the case of Nandrolone, for example, its detectable metabolites are known to remain for far longer periods of time than other anabolic steroids.
One must understand that in order for a lab to find a compound, they must know what they are already looking for. If an athlete is utilizing a compound that is a custom made compound and is yet to be discovered, and there is no knowledge of this compound has reached chemists, doctors, or the IOC testing lab, then there will be zero chance of detecting the anabolic steroid or its metabolites.
East Germany was well known as being one such country where their athletes utilized this method to skirt drug testing. These cat-and-mouse games of drug testing in sports and the Olympics continued all throughout the s and s until when Canadian Olympic sprinter Ben Johnson won the meter dash and tested positive for the anabolic steroid Winstrol following the games. Anabolic steroids enjoyed a free period of flourishing use and research and development until the summer Olympic Games when Canadian Olympic sprinter Ben Johnson tested positive after his victory at the meter dash.
This would be the swan song for the freedom and legality of anabolic steroids in the United States and the first part of the control placed on anabolic steroids. The Olympic steroid scandal sparked a congressional hearing on the issue of anabolic steroid use, and it was during this year that anabolic steroids were placed under the Controlled Substances Act in the United States.
Although this did not make possession and use a criminal illegal act, it removed the freedom to openly purchase anabolic steroids without a prescription. All of these agencies made it specifically clear to congress and the United States government that there existed no reasonable or valid medical or legal reason for placing such a control measure on anabolic steroids.
Blatantly disregarding and ignoring the recommendations from these professional institutions and bodies, United States congress still made the decision to place anabolic steroids under the controlled substances act.
However, it was not until two years later in when congress then passed the Steroid Control Act, and placed anabolic steroids into the Schedule III category of the Controlled Substances act, which classified anabolic steroids along with Opiates, Ketamine, and Barbiturates. This now made it an illegal criminal offense in the United States to possess, use, buy, and sell anabolic steroids without a valid prescription.
It is very important to understand that anabolic steroids are legal in most countries in the world, and that in many countries it is not illegal. The United States of America is one of the only countries in the world to implement strict and stringent draconian laws concerning anabolic steroids.
For example, in Canada anabolic steroids are placed under Schedule IV in the Canadian Controlled Drugs and Substances act where personal possession and use is legal and not an offense. As well, anabolic steroids were not actually legislated in Canada until Prior to in Canada, anabolic steroids were freely available for use and consumption. What is interesting is that during this time during the early s, the medical applications of anabolic steroids for the treatment of various diseases, ailments, and medical conditions saw a large boom and expansion while the detriment of the legislation and hysteria surrounding anabolic steroids continued to spike.
Unfortunately, however, it is because of the sensationalizing of anabolic steroids and the stigma stapled to it that has held back the potential developments and research that could have benefited many people.
Shortly after the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of , many pharmaceutical companies halted the production and marketing of anabolic steroids in the United States, serving to further hold back any potential positive medical research and development. These companies included Ciba, Searle, Syntex, as well as many others. The legislation of anabolic steroids in the early s and the negative stigma that has followed ever since has also raised the common question that if steroids are so deadly, why are they are manufactured by US pharmaceutical companies and prescribed as medicine to help people, but if one utilizes it for the purpose of physique and performance enhancement they suddenly supposedly become deadly?
As time passed since the Anabolic Steroid Control Act, the use of anabolic steroids among the population only increased, and the legislation of anabolic steroids created a massive new lucrative spot in the black market for the buying and selling of anabolic steroids. The attempts by politicians and the governing bodies of sports to continually pummel anabolic steroids into the ground would not end, however.
Prohormones are what are known as precursors to anabolic steroids, and have little to no hormonal activity on its own.