Metabolism of Carbohydrates: Catabolism and Anabolism (With Diagram)Let us make an in-depth study of the metabolism of carbohydrates. The metabolism of carbohydrates is done through two processes: Catabolic Processes and B. The catabolic processes of carbohydrates include: Citric Acid Cycle 3. The anabolic processes of carbohydrates include:
Metabolism of Carbohydrates: Catabolism and Anabolism (With Diagram)
Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates to yield an energy rich compound called ATP. The production of ATP is achieved through the oxidation of glucose molecules. ATP production occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. There are two methods of producing ATP: In aerobic respiration, oxygen is required. In anaerobic respiration, oxygen is not required. When oxygen is absent, the generation of ATP continues through fermentation.
There are two types of fermentation: There are several different types of carbohydrates: The breakdown of glucose into energy in the form of molecules of ATP is therefore one of the most important biochemical pathways found in living organisms. Glycolysis can be either an aerobic or anaerobic process. When oxygen is present, glycolysis continues along the aerobic respiration pathway.
If oxygen is not present, then ATP production is restricted to anaerobic respiration. The location where glycolysis, aerobic or anaerobic, occurs is in the cytosol of the cell.
In glycolysis, a six-carbon glucose molecule is split into two three-carbon molecules called pyruvate. For the glucose molecule to oxidize into pyruvate, an input of ATP molecules is required.
This is known as the investment phase, in which a total of two ATP molecules are consumed. Even though ATP is synthesized, the two ATP molecules produced are few compared to the second and third pathways, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Even if there is no oxygen present, glycolysis can continue to generate ATP.
In alcohol fermentation, when a glucose molecule is oxidized, ethanol ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide are byproducts. Each pyruvate releases a carbon dioxide molecule, turning into acetaldehyde. In lactic acid fermentation , each pyruvate molecule is directly reduced by NADH. The only byproduct from this type of fermentation is lactate. Lactic acid fermentation is used by human muscle cells as a means of generating ATP during strenuous exercise where oxygen consumption is higher than the supplied oxygen.
As this process progresses, the surplus of lactate is brought to the liver , which converts it back to pyruvate. If oxygen is present, then following glycolysis, the two pyruvate molecules are brought into the mitochondrion itself to go through the Krebs cycle. In this cycle, the pyruvate molecules from glycolysis are further broken down to harness the remaining energy. Each pyruvate goes through a series of reactions that converts it to acetyl coenzyme A. From here, only the acetyl group participates in the Krebs cycle—in which it goes through a series of redox reactions , catalyzed by enzymes , to further harness the energy from the acetyl group.
The last process in aerobic respiration is oxidative phosphorylation , also known as the electron transport chain. Oxidative phosphorylation contributes the majority of the ATP produced, compared to glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. As they are brought from the initial process, glycolysis, to the electron transport chain, the energy stored in them are now utilized. A second contributing factor is that cristae , the inner membranes of mitochondria, increase the surface area and therefore the amount of proteins in the membrane that assist in the synthesis of ATP.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Metabolism , catabolism , anabolism. Metabolic pathway Metabolic network Primary nutritional groups. Pentose phosphate pathway Fructolysis Galactolysis. Photosynthesis Anoxygenic photosynthesis Chemosynthesis Carbon fixation. Fatty acid degradation Beta oxidation Fatty acid synthesis.
Steroid metabolism Sphingolipid metabolism Eicosanoid metabolism Ketosis Reverse cholesterol transport. Amino acid synthesis Urea cycle.
Electron acceptors are other than oxygen. Protein metabolism Protein synthesis Catabolism. Fatty acid metabolism Fatty acid degradation Beta oxidation Fatty acid synthesis.