Restricted Flame Retardants: Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) ServicesEnabling you to identify and mitigate the intrinsic risk in your operations, supply chains and business processes. Evaluating deca bde your products and services meet deca bde exceed quality, safety, sustainability and performance standards. Validating the specifications, value and safety of your raw materials, products and assets. Formally confirming that your products and services meet all trusted external deca bde internal standards. Intertek offers companies comprehensive solutions for compliance with global regulations, bans and restrictions regarding the use of the flame retardant chemical, Decabromodiphenyl ether DecaBDE.
Decabromodiphenyl ether - Wikipedia
DecaBDE is a flame retardant. The chemical "is always used in conjunction with antimony trioxide " in polymers , mainly in "high impact polystyrene HIPS which is used in the television industry for cabinet backs.
The annual demand worldwide was estimated as 56, tonnes in , of which the Americas accounted for 24, tonnes, Asia 23, tonnes, and Europe 7, tonnes. As stated in a review, "Deca-BDE has long been characterized as an environmentally stable and inert product that was not capable of degradation in the environment, not toxic, and therefore of no concern.
DecaBDE is released by different processes into the environment, such as emissions from manufacture of decaBDE-containing products and from the products themselves. Subsequently, many studies have been published concerning decaBDE debromination. In March the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency concluded "it can be questioned how much abiotic and microbial degradation [of decaBDE] occurs under normal environmental conditions, and it is not clear whether the more toxic lower-brominated PBDEs are produced in significant quantities by any of these pathways.
Exposure to decaBDE is thought to occur by means of ingestion. Once in the body, decaBDE "might leave unchanged or as metabolites, mainly in the feces and in very small amounts in the urine, within a few days," in contrast with "lower brominated PBDEs In the general population, decaBDE has been found in blood and breast milk, but at lower levels than other PBDE congeners such as 47, 99, and Practically all of the available information is from studies of laboratory animals.
Animal studies indicate that commercial decaBDE mixtures are generally much less toxic than the products containing lower brominated PBDEs.
Because of its very different toxicity, decaBDE is expected to have relatively little effect on the health of humans. One review concluded "Decreases in thyroid hormone levels have been reported in several studies, and thyroid gland enlargement an early sign of hypothyroidism has been shown in studies of longer duration exposure. The European Commission then started an infringement procedure against Sweden which lead to the Swedish Government repealing this restriction on 1 July .
The environment agency of Norway , which is a member of the European Free Trade Association but is not a member of the EU, recommended that decaBDE be banned from electronic products in The agency is proposing a restriction on the manufacture, use and placing on the market of the substance and of mixtures and articles containing it.
On 17 September , ECHA submitted the restriction report which initiates a six months public consultation. Products placed on the market prior to 2 March are exempt. Furthermore, the use decaBDE in aircraft is permissible until 2 March As of mid two states had instituted measures to phase out decaBDE. In April the state of Washington passed a law banning the manufacture, sale, and use of decaBDE in mattresses as of ; the ban "could be extended to TVs, computers and upholstered residential furniture in provided an alternative flame retardant is approved.
A number of reports have examined alternatives to decaBDE as a flame retardant. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Related polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Archived from the original on Third annual report to the Maine Legislature. Archived at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original — Scholar search on November 13, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs http: J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol.
A Review of Available Scientific Research. American Council on Science and Health, August Integr Environ Assess Manag. Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Official Journal of the European Union They are everywhere, they accumulate and they spread. Seattle Post-Intelligencer , March 28, Communication from the Commission on the results of the risk evaluation of chlorodifluoromethane, bis pentabromophenyl ether and methenamine and on the risk reduction strategy for the substance methenamine , Official Journal of the European Union.
Retrieved 16 June Chemical ban puts industry on the defensive. Seattle Post-Intelligencer , April 16, Governor signs deca ban bill into law: State will require phase-out of the flame retardant in household items. National Caucus of Environmental Legislators, June 18, Substituting Environmentally Relevant Flame Retardants: Results and summary overview. Federal Environmental Agency Umweltbundesamt , June Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate, June Review on production processes of decabromodiphenyl ether decaBDE used in polymeric applications in electrical and electronic equipment, and assessment of the availability of potential alternatives to decaBDE.