CorticosteroidCorticosteroids are a class kortikosteroid pdf steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebratesas well as kortikodteroid synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoidsare involved pdd a wide range of physiological processes, kortikosteroid pdf stress responseimmune responseand regulation of kortikosteroid pdfcarbohydrate metabolismprotein catabolismblood electrolyte levels, and behavior. Note that aldosterone kortikosteroid pdf cortisone share the same chemical formula but the structures are different. The main corticosteroids produced by the adrenal cortex are cortisol and aldosterone. Synthetic pharmaceutical drugs with corticosteroid-like effects are used in a variety of conditions, ranging from brain tumors to skin kortikosteroid pdf. Dexamethasone and its derivatives are almost pure glucocorticoids, kortikosterroid prednisone and its derivatives have some mineralocorticoid action in addition to the glucocorticoid effect.
Corticosteroid - Wikipedia
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates , as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids , are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including stress response , immune response , and regulation of inflammation , carbohydrate metabolism , protein catabolism , blood electrolyte levels, and behavior.
Note that aldosterone and cortisone share the same chemical formula but the structures are different. The main corticosteroids produced by the adrenal cortex are cortisol and aldosterone. Synthetic pharmaceutical drugs with corticosteroid-like effects are used in a variety of conditions, ranging from brain tumors to skin diseases. Dexamethasone and its derivatives are almost pure glucocorticoids, while prednisone and its derivatives have some mineralocorticoid action in addition to the glucocorticoid effect.
Fludrocortisone Florinef is a synthetic mineralocorticoid. Hydrocortisone cortisol is typically used for replacement therapy, e. Medical conditions treated with systemic corticosteroids: Topical formulations are also available for the skin , eyes uveitis , lungs asthma , nose rhinitis , and bowels. Corticosteroids are also used supportively to prevent nausea, often in combination with 5-HT3 antagonists e.
Typical undesired effects of glucocorticoids present quite uniformly as drug-induced Cushing's syndrome. Typical mineralocorticoid side-effects are hypertension abnormally high blood pressure , hypokalemia low potassium levels in the blood , hypernatremia high sodium levels in the blood without causing peripheral edema , metabolic alkalosis and connective tissue weakness. Clinical and experimental evidence indicates that corticosteroids can cause permanent eye damage by inducing central serous retinopathy CSR, also known as central serous chorioretinopathy, CSC.
Corticosteroids have been widely used in treating people with traumatic brain injury. The authors recommended people with traumatic head injury should not be routinely treated with corticosteroids. Patients' response to inhaled corticosteroids has some basis in genetic variations.
Both genes display some degree of polymorphic variation in humans, which may explain how some patients respond better to inhaled corticosteroid therapy than others. The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex.
Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. In general, corticosteroids are grouped into four classes, based on chemical structure. Allergic reactions to one member of a class typically indicate an intolerance of all members of the class.
This is known as the "Coopman classification". The highlighted steroids are often used in the screening of allergies to topical steroids. Hydrocortisone , methylprednisolone , prednisolone , prednisone , and triamcinolone short- to medium-acting glucocorticoids. Amcinonide , budesonide , desonide , fluocinolone acetonide , fluocinonide , halcinonide , and triamcinolone acetonide. Beclometasone , betamethasone , dexamethasone , fluocortolone , halometasone , and mometasone. Alclometasone dipropionate , betamethasone dipropionate , betamethasone valerate , clobetasol propionate , clobetasone butyrate , fluprednidene acetate , and mometasone furoate.
Ciclesonide , cortisone acetate , hydrocortisone aceponate , hydrocortisone acetate , hydrocortisone buteprate , hydrocortisone butyrate , hydrocortisone valerate , prednicarbate , and tixocortol pivalate.
For use topically on the skin, eye, and mucous membranes. Seven categories are used in the United States to determine the level of potency of any given topical corticosteroid. For nasal mucosa, sinuses, bronchii, and lungs. There also exist certain combination preparations such as Advair Diskus in the United States, containing fluticasone propionate and salmeterol a long-acting bronchodilator , and Symbicort , containing budesonide and formoterol fumarate dihydrate another long-acting bronchodilator .
They are both approved for use in children over 12 years old. Such as prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone , or dexamethasone. Available in injectables for intravenous and parenteral routes. Tadeusz Reichstein , Edward Calvin Kendall. Initially hailed as a miracle cure and liberally prescribed during the s, steroid treatment brought about adverse events of such a magnitude that the next major category of anti-inflammatory drugs, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs , was so named in order to demarcate from the opprobrium.
Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams. His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception.
Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. The cortico- part of the name refers to the adrenal cortex , which makes these steroid hormones. Thus a corticosteroid is a "cortex steroid".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs attention from an expert in Medicine. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article.
WikiProject Medicine may be able to help recruit an expert. Cortisol hydrocortisone , a corticosteroid with both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activity and effects. Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. A massage therapist's guide to Pathology 3rd ed. Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology. Corticosteroids for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1: A functional variant predicts improvement in asthma with the use of inhaled corticosteroids".
Br J Clin Pharmacol. Flores and Heather Kenna Gumina. The Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of Steroid Treatment. Journal of General Internal Medicine. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Comparison of fluticasone and beclomethasone". Expert Review of Dermatology. Indian Journal of Dermatology. Drug, healthcare and patient safety. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy. Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition.
Emollients Cicatrizants Antipruritics Antipsoriatics Medicated dressings. Anticancer agents Antimetabolites Alkylating Spindle poisons Antineoplastic Topoisomerase inhibitors. Decongestants Bronchodilators Cough medicines H 1 antagonists. Antidotes Contrast media Radiopharmaceuticals Dressings Senotherapeutics. Allopregnanediol Pregnanediol Pregnanediol glucuronide Pregnanetriol.
Glucocorticoids and antiglucocorticoids H Cortisone Cortisone acetate Cortodoxone cortexolone, deoxycortisol Desoxycortone deoxycortone, cortexone, deoxycorticosterone Desoxycortone esters Hydrocortisone cortisol Hydrocortisone esters Prebediolone acetate Pregnenolone Pregnenolone acetate Pregnenolone succinate.
Cortisol-like and related unsubstituted: Chloroprednisone Cloprednol Difluprednate Fludrocortisone Flugestone acetate flurogestone acetate Fluocinolone Fluorometholone Fluorometholone acetate Fluperolone Fluperolone acetate Fluprednisolone Fluprednisolone esters Loteprednol Medrysone Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone esters Prednicarbate Prednisolone Prednisone Tixocortol Tixocortol pivalate Methasones and related substituted: Amcinonide Budesonide Ciclesonide Deflazacort Desonide Fluclorolone acetonide flucloronide Fludroxycortide flurandrenolone, flurandrenolide Flunisolide Fluocinolone acetonide Fluocinonide Formocortal fluoroformylone Halcinonide Triamcinolone acetonide Triamcinolone acetonide esters.
Aglepristone Ketoconazole Mifepristone Ulipristal acetate. Mineralocorticoids and antimineralocorticoids H Desoxycortone desoxycorticosterone Desoxycortone esters Hydrocortisone cortisol Hydrocortisone esters Fludrocortisone Fludrocortisone acetate Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone esters Prednisolone Prednisolone esters Prednisone Prednisone esters.
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Glucocorticoid receptor , Mineralocorticoid receptor.