Anabolic steroids, bodybuilding discussion forums. - SteroidologyBoldenone BOL is an androgenic steroid that improves the growth and food conversion in food-producing animals. In most countries worldwide, this anabolic steroid is forbidden for human ijjection and meat boldenone injection as it was developed for veterinary clenbuterol yan etki. Recently, BOL is used by bodybuilders boldenone injection both off season and pre-contest, where it is well known for increasing vascularity while boldenone injection for a bodybuilding contest. The present study was designed to injeection the physiological and biochemical changes in injectjon after injection with the growth promoter BOL. The animals from practice appeared healthy and did not show clinical signs of disease and none of the rabbits died during the experimental period. These findings explain the common phenomena in athletes and bodybuilders who suffer from infertility, renal and hepatic alterations following boldenone injection with some drugs as steroids BOL to build muscles.
How to use Equipoise? - Illicit Drugs Research
Boldenone BOL is an androgenic steroid that improves the growth and food conversion in food-producing animals. In most countries worldwide, this anabolic steroid is forbidden for human uses and meat production as it was developed for veterinary use. Recently, BOL is used by bodybuilders in both off season and pre-contest, where it is well known for increasing vascularity while preparing for a bodybuilding contest.
The present study was designed to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in rabbits after injection with the growth promoter BOL. The animals from practice appeared healthy and did not show clinical signs of disease and none of the rabbits died during the experimental period. These findings explain the common phenomena in athletes and bodybuilders who suffer from infertility, renal and hepatic alterations following injection with some drugs as steroids BOL to build muscles.
Anabolic androgenic steroids caused some adverse effects such as disturbance of the endocrine and immune function, alterations of sebaceous system and skin changes of haemostatic system and urogenital tract Alm-Eldeen and Tousson, ; Hughes et al.
Certain veterinary products fall under this act and have been reclassified as Schedule III drugs. These include boldenone BOL , mibolerone, stanozolol, trenbolone and their esters and isomers Soma et al. Its role in increasing the muscle size is due to promotion of positive nitrogen balance by stimulating protein production and reducing protein destruction.
They were developed mainly for veterinary use, mostly for the horse treatment and well known under the trade names Equipoise, Ganabol, Equigan and Ultragan. In most countries worldwide, this anabolic steroid is forbidden for meat production and human uses Cannizzo et al. It has a very long half-life and can show up on a steroid test for up to 1. This is because of the long undecylenate ester attached to the parent steroid. Trace amounts of the drug can be easily detected for months after discontinued use Hoffmann, BOL has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly through injection to build muscles and indirectly through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL.
Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in rabbit blood after injection with the growth promoter BOL. The experiment adhered to the guidelines of the ethical committee of the National Research Center, Egypt. The present study was conducted at a rabbit private farm in Dakahlia Governorate and Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt, during spring and summer The experiment was performed on 32 adult New Zealand rabbits weighing 3.
The animals were fed pellets standard rabbit ration ad libitum and were allowed free access to water. Animals were divided into four groups eight animals in each group. Control group G 1 included animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil. Blood samples were individually collected from the inferior vena cava of each rabbit in non-heparinized glass tubes. Complete blood picture were shown from the collected blood samples from the first tube by manual methods. Total protein, albumin and urea were measured using diagnostic kits according to the method described by Henry , Henry and Fawcett , respectively.
The serum globulin was calculated by subtracting the value of albumin from the value of total protein according to the method followed by Doumas and Biggs Serum creatinine, asparate aminotransferase AST; glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and alanine aminotransferase ALT; glutamic—pyruvic transaminase and serum total ST bilirubin and serum direct SD bilirubin were determined using the diagnostic kits according to the method described by Bowers and Wong , Henry and Gabr et al.
The animals under practice appeared healthy and did not show clinical signs of disease and no mortality was recorded during the experimental duration.
The percentages of haemoglobin, haematocrit and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration MCHC in rabbit blood tended to significantly increase in groups G 2 , G 3 and G 4 as compared to the control group.
No changes in the red blood cells count was recorded in different groups when compared with group G 1. Anabolic steroids could stimulate erythropoiesis, a mechanism that may occur by stimulating erythropoietic-stimulating factor Gabr et al.
No clear differences were observed regarding ST and SD bilirubin concentrations in rabbit blood serum of different groups Table 2. These results are in agreement with Urhausen et al. Similarly, current results are in agreement with Dickerman et al.
Following the same trend, Istasse et al. Stanozolol has been shown to cause inflammatory or degenerative lesions in centrilobular hepatocytes, ultrastructural alterations in the canaliculi and degenerative changes in mitochondria and lysosomes Boada et al. Contrary to the present results, Gabr et al.
BOL treatment can cause an oxidative stress situation in liver and kidney as indicated by enhanced malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione extent. Injection of the anabolic steroid BOL induced changes in oxidative stress biomarker levels and antioxidant defence systems in rabbit liver and kidney El-Moghazy et al. The activity of ST bilirubin after BOL injections were increased in G 2 group and decreased in G 3 and G 4 groups when compared with the control group, while SD bilirubin in blood serum of rabbits were decreased in G 2 , G 3 and G 4 groups when compared with the control group Table 2.
So, these findings suggested that misuse of growth promoter BOL undecylenate may contribute to a continuous damage to hepatic and renal functions and structures that may lead to progressive hepatic and renal diseases. Changes in the complete blood picture levels in different groups under study. Our results are in agreement with El-Moghazy et al. Our results are in agreement with Jockenhovel et al. In agreement with our findings, serum testosterone levels in treated groups with anabolic androgenic steroid were significantly higher than that in the control group Gabr and Shaker, ; Gabr et al.
Our results are in agreement with Silcox et al. Also, Rodriguez et al. Animal experiments with anabolic steroids showed reduced testicular development and increased stromal proliferation Groot and Arts, Similar findings were reported in lamb and calf testis from animals implanted with oestradiol and trenbolone Rodriguez et al.
Our results are not in agreement with Shimomura et al. On the other hand, present results are in agreement with a number of recent studies, which provided evidence that anabolic steroid causes an adverse effect on the human health Hughes et al.
These findings suggested that overall administration of BOL undecylenate may contribute to a continuous damage of the testicular function and structure that may lead to infertility. Also, these findings explain the common phenomena in athletes and bodybuilders who suffer from infertility, renal failure when injected with some drugs as steroids BOL to build muscles. Also, these findings suggested that misuse of growth promoter BOL undecylenate may contribute to the continuous damage of the testicular, renal and hepatic functions that may lead to progressive genital, renal or hepatic diseases, so people should be careful in using such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance.
Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice.
Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Skip to main content. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Physiological and biochemical changes after boldenone injection in adult rabbits.
Download PDF Article information. Article first published online: September 30, ; Issue published: Keywords Steroids , boldenone , rabbit , liver and kidney functions , sexual hormones. Material and methods Section:.
Results and discussion Section:. Vol 32, Issue 1, Vol 32, Issue 1, pp. Permissions Request Permissions View permissions information for this article. Send me a copy Cancel. Alm-Eldeen, A, Tousson, E Deterioration of glomerular endothelial surface layer and the alteration in the renal function in Rabbits after treatment with a growth promoter Boldenone. Human and Experimental Toxicology 3: Archives of Toxicology Bowers, L, Wong, E Kinetic serum creatinine assays.
A critical evaluation and review. Cannizzo, TF, Zancanaro, G, Spada, F, Mulasso, C, Biolatti, B Pathology of the testicle and sex accessory glands following the administration of boldenone and boldione as growth promoters in veal calves. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 9: Academic Press , pp. Fawcett, JK Determination of urea in serum. Journal of Clinical Pathology Journal of Egyptian Veterinary Medical Association Nature and Science 7: Groot, MJ, Arts, CM Histological changes in the genital tract of male veal calves after the administration of natural hormones.
Harper and Row , p. Henry, RJ Determination of serum total protein. Clinical Chemistry Principles and Techniques. Harper and Row , pp Hoffmann, U Anabolic steroids: International Journal of Immunopharmacology Journal of Animal Science Kicman, AT Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.
British Journal of Pharmacology Kuhn, CM Anabolic steroids. Recent Progress in Hormone Research Google Scholar , Crossref , Medline. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry Google Scholar , Crossref.