WHO is working with international experts and partners to provide guidance in developing or adapting nutrient profile models. The aim of the work is to. This publication describes a regional nutrient profile model for use and adaptation by Member States of the WHO European Region when developing policies to. Nutrient Profiles. A Nutrient Profile contains a list of all the nutrients and amounts needed by the human body. Try the Nutrient Profile Calculator to personalize.
The NDNS that provided the data for this analysis was well suited to measuring dietary intake of a representative sample from Great Britain.
In spite of the intrusive nature of the data collection, a large sample was attained although the response rate was disappointingly low, increasing the likelihood of non-response bias Henderson et al. As with all dietary surveys, the results may be affected by differential under-reporting. It is generally found with dietary surveys that individuals who report a healthy diet are more likely to under-report than those who do not Becker and Welten, ; Scagliusi et al.
If some of this difference is due to differential under-reporting, then the gradients in amount of food consumed between dietary groups is likely to be shallower than reported here, as are the differences in proportion of diet consumed for the different food groups and the difference in healthiness of foods consumed in each group, because respondents are more likely to under-report unhealthy foods than healthy foods Becker and Welten, The data used in this analysis are cross-sectional.
Ideally, the analysis should consider individuals who have moved from an unhealthy diet to a healthy one or vice versa and assess whether that change was the result of displacement, substitution or both. Such an analysis would require a longitudinal data set with at least two dietary data collection points, which was not available to the authors. The analysis only looked at one categorisation of foods. Further work could be conducted using different methods for categorising foods.
Similarly, the dietary data analysed here were collected from British adults, and it is not clear whether similar results would be found using other national data sets because different countries tend to have different diets Tukker et al.
However, the methods used here could easily be reproduced with other national dietary data sets. An important question that has not yet been addressed is whether the potential health gains that could be achieved by displacement are greater than by substitution or vice versa.
One way of answering this question would be to model the effect of the unhealthy diet quality group moving to a healthier diet through substitution alone and through displacement alone and compare the results.
Addressing this issue could lead to more informed prioritisation of dietary interventions. Nutrient profile models designed to promote this healthy diet should, all other things being equal, be category specific but with a limited number of categories focused on meat, dairy, cereals and ready meals.
Nutrient profile models of this kind will also be broadly in agreement with food-based dietary guidelines. Nutrient profiling model WXYfm used for regulating the broadcast advertising of foods to children in the UK and, in an adapted form, for regulating health claims for foods in Australia, continues to be one of the best validated nutrient profiling models and the most appropriate for its applications.
Carukshi Arambepola was supported by the University of Oxford during the development of this paper, and is now supported by the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. The British Heart Foundation had no role in the design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of the research. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Copyright , Macmillan Publishers Limited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction Many countries use food-based dietary guidelines to frame a recommended diet, which can then be promoted by a series of dietary interventions.
Identifying the healthiness of individual foods The nutrient profiling model WXYfm was used to identify the healthiness of foods in the Nutrient Databank Rayner et al. Identifying categories of foods The food categories chosen for this paper were those that were developed for the February version of the proposed EU nutrient profile model.
Table 1 Food categories and exemptions of foods during the four developmental stages of the proposed EU nutrient profile model. Fruits, vegetables, and their products if they do not contain added sugars, salt or fat except vegetable oils.
Open in a separate window. Comparisons between healthy and unhealthy diet quality groups For each respondent to the NDNS, an average WXYfm food score was calculated for each of the 13 food categories, as well as for all foods consumed. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics were developed for each of the diet quality groups that included the sex, age, socioeconomic and ethnic distribution of the groups.
Results Table 2 reports descriptive statistics of the different diet quality groups and shows that healthy eaters were more likely to be female, older, non-manual workers and vegetarians. Table 2 Descriptive characteristics of diet quality groups. Lower WXYfm scores indicate healthier foods.
Respondents split into diet quality groups by quartiles of the Diet Quality Index score. Table 3 Percentage contribution weighted by energy to total diet of food categories by diet quality groups. Average WXYfm score s. Note that lower WXYfm scores indicate healthier foods. Discussion It is shown in this paper that, to achieve a diet consumed by those in the healthy diet quality groups, consumers of unhealthy diets would have both to consume different quantities of food categories displacement and consume healthier versions of foods from within food categories substitution , suggesting that food-based dietary guidelines are correct in adopting both displacement and substitution messages.
Strengths and weaknesses of study The methods and results described in this paper illustrate a novel use for nutrient profiling, that of exploring whether the difference between healthy diets and unhealthy diets is due to different consumption patterns within food categories, between food categories or both. Unanswered questions and further research An important question that has not yet been addressed is whether the potential health gains that could be achieved by displacement are greater than by substitution or vice versa.
Validating a nutrient profile model. Under-reporting in dietary surveys—implications for development of food-based dietary guidelines. Working Document on the Setting of Nutrient Profiles. Gibson S, Neate D. Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: Int J Food Sci Nutr. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: The Nestle Nutritional Profiling System.
Options for New Restrictions. Development of Final Model. Under-reporting of energy intake is more prevalent in a healthy dietary pattern cluster.
The in-country pilot testing involved countries applying the proposed model to a nationally generated list of — foods that were either: Countries were asked to comment on the food categories, the nutrient thresholds, the proposed exclusions, and prohibitions, and to confirm that the model categorized foods in line with national food-based dietary guidelines. See the database for more details on specific research articles or other publications that tested the model.
Models were applied to packaged foods and beverages. However, the present model is a slightly modified version of the Ofcom model model no. Information obtained from the draft catalog by Rayner and colleagues last updated in November The Ofcom model is one of the most studied models in the scientific literature.
The source reference of the model 76 also indicates that it was tested for content validity: Where misclassifications were identified, solutions were considered such as introducing food categories, or the use of a modified range of nutrients.
Criterion predictive validity was additionally tested as part of a PhD thesis by Masset However, it cannot be stated that this increase is due solely to the pricing incentive. Appendix D of the source reference of the model 98 indicates, in the context of vending machines, that healthier vending options generate revenue, or at least do not have a negative impact on revenue. It showed that the program was leading to improved intakes of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, as well as to some improvements in perinatal outcomes.
However, the present model state level is based on the Minimum requirements and specifications for food items allowed in the WIC food packages federal level; model no. Two articles by Jessri et al.
The first suggests that the HCST has achieved face validity: Applications of nutrient profiling: Nutrient profiling and the regulation of marketing to children. Guiding principles and framework manual for the development or adaptation of nutrient profile models.
Nutrient profiles for use in relation to food promotion and children's diet: Food Standards Agency; [cited Nov 20]. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: Systematic review of nutrient profile models developed for nutrition-related policies and regulations aimed at noncommunicable disease prevention.
Examination of front-of-package nutrition rating systems and symbols: Australian Government, Department of Health. National Healthy School Canteens: Canteen menu planning guide. Queensland Government, Department of Education and Training. Jun 20 [cited Aug 1]. The easy guide to healthy food and drink supply for South Australian schools and preschools. Jun [cited Oct 18]. State of Victoria Australia. Oct [cited Sep 17]. Provincial and territorial guidance document for the development of nutrient criteria for foods and beverages in schools Feb 18 [cited Nov 2].
Alberta nutrition guidelines for children and youth. Sep [cited Jul 12]. Oct [cited Sep 23]. Government of New Brunswick, Department of Education. Mar 17 [cited Oct 5]. Healthier eating and nutrition in school. Nova Scotia Department of Education. Food and nutrition policy for Nova Scotia public schools. Food and beverage standards for Nova Scotia public schools. Spring [cited Jul 27]. Ontario Ministry of Education. Jan [cited Jul 27]. School nutrition for all grade levels — K Saskatchewan Ministry of Education.
Eat well, learn well, live well. Towards comprehensive school community health: Nutritional guidelines on snacks for students for use in primary and secondary schools [Internet].
Dec [cited Aug 10]. Ministerio de Educacion Publica, Costa Rica. Draft implementing decree of [date] [month] on requirements for foods for which advertising is permitted and which can be offered for sale and sold in schools and school facilities.
May 13 [cited Sep 20]. Greek Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. Draft guidelines for making available wholesome, nutritious, safe and hygienic food to school children in India [Internet]. Oct 12 [cited Feb 8]. New Zealand Heart Foundation. A guide to implementing the nutritional requirements for food and drink in schools Scotland regulations [Internet]. Sep [cited Oct 14].
Singapore Ministry of Health. Eating healthily at the school canteen: HPB helps to provide the right nutrients for your children at school [Internet]. Jun 3 [cited Nov 24]. The Secretary of State for Education, England.
The requirements for school food regulations Food and Nutrition Service. Jul 29 [cited Oct 21]. An act to amend Sections , , Sep 15 [cited Dec 21]. An act to amend Section Connecticut State Department of Education.
Connecticut Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools. School year —17 effective July 1, North Carolina's recommended standards for all foods available in school [Internet]. Development of international criteria for a front of package food labelling system: Jun [cited Feb 8]. Health Star Rating System [Internet]. Jun [cited Jul 29]. Diario Oficial de la Republica de Chile. Jun 26 [cited Nov 6]. Gobierno del Ecuador, Ministerio de Salud Publica. Aug 25 [cited Feb 10]. Nov 15 [cited Sep 20].
As of Jun edited Sep 26 [cited Nov 23]. National Food Agency Sweden. Jan 30 [cited Dec 8]. Specification for using Weqaya Food program [Internet]. Nov 11 [cited Oct 19]. Government of UK, Department of Health.
Guide to creating a front of pack FoP nutrition label for pre-packaged products sold through retail outlets [Internet]. Jun 19 [updated Nov; cited Nov 21]. Produce for Better Health Foundation. Jul [cited Nov 14]. Posted March [updated May]. WHO nutrient profile model for the Western Pacific region. A tool to protect children from food marketing [Internet].
Pan American Health Organization. Forum of Responsible Food Marketing Communication. Aug [cited Nov 1]. Broadcasting Authority of Ireland. Aug [cited Jul 25]. Jun 4 [cited Sep 26]. Mexico, Diario Oficial de la Federacion.
Nutrient profiling to develop a model for marketing food and non-alcoholic beverages to children: Sep 19 [cited Jul 25]. Sep 24 [cited Oct 18]. Office of Agricultural Affairs. The Special Act on children's dietary life safety management [Internet]. May 15 [cited Nov 21]. Nutrition standards for high-calorie foods with low nutritional value. Department of Health UK. Jan 14 [cited Nov 15]. Federal Register of Legislation. Mar 1 [cited Nov 16].
Setting of nutrient profiles for accessing nutrition and health claims: Jun [cited Nov 22]. Nutrient profiling to develop a model for regulating health and nutrient claims: US Government Publishing Office. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Food for human consumption. Current as of Nov 14 [cited Nov 16]. Specific requirements for nutrient content claims.
Implied nutrient content claims and related label statements [Internet]. Current as of Nov 17 [cited Nov 21]. US Food and Drug Administration. Jan [cited Jul 12]. Queensland Government, Queensland Health. Sep 30 [cited Oct 26]. Colchester East Hants Health Authority. Jun 12 [cited Feb 10]. National catering and nutrition specification for food and fluid provision in hospitals in Scotland [Internet]. Mar 22 [cited Oct 18]. United States Department of Agriculture. Aug 2 [cited Aug 3].
Mar 27 [cited Sep 20]. Health and sustainability guidelines for federal concessions and vending operations [Internet]. Apr [revised Feb; cited Oct 26]. Food Service Guidelines Federal Workgroup. Washington State Department of Health. Implementation guide for agencies, sites and vendors. Feb [cited Oct 24]. Feb 13 [cited Oct 21]. Aug [cited Sep 20]. Mar [cited Sep 20].
Nutrition environment measures survey-vending: Feb 10 [cited Aug 30]. National Park Service healthy food choice standards and sustainable food choice guidelines for front country operations [Internet]. Jun 5 [revised Sep 23; cited Oct 31]. Sep [cited Aug 3].
Special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children WIC: Mar 4 [cited Nov 28]. Georgia Department of Public Health. WIC approved foods list. Georgia WIC food package. Revised January [Internet]. Jun 24 [cited Aug 10]. Georgia WIC-approved food list. Criteria to evaluate an eligible food item. Updated January [Internet]. A comparison using two nutrient profiling models developed to combat over- and undernutrition. The development and use of a surveillance tool: Ducks's Australian Reference Values - Sex: Miyu's Nutrient Profile Mk.
Crude's DRI for Him: UK RDA high protein. Female, zone, , non-lactating, non-pregnant, kcal. Australian Nutrient Guidelines for Women aged years calories. Copy of gandhi03's U. Roobology's Female Mesomorph: Synectar One US Profile, kcal. Male Ketogenic Weightloss Hard cal. Satheian's Primal Gainer 3k. Dirkson's half-assed nutrient profile. EU Reference Intake values - with a few tweaks. Quick Weight Loss when paired with Exercise x4 per week. EU Dietary Reference Values. Jean's Nutrient Profile 1.
Low Calorie, plus U. Adult , full nutrients. DRI, male, calories. UK government NRI, male , calories. Ketogenic Male Kcal U. Two Meal Nutrient Profile [Moderate]. Finnish nutrition recommendations kcal, min carbs, adult male. German dietary reference values, male Low Carb Profile [ Male: UK RDA high protein updated and accurate.
Petite female , Sedentary, Non-Lactating. Vicc's Personal Nutrient Profile. Tall and Sporty profile. Taking a trip down to Gainsborough. Svoboda's DRI for Her:
UK Nutrient Profiling Model 2018 review
ABSTRACT. Nutrient profile (NP) models, tools used to rate or evaluate the nutritional quality of foods, are increasingly used by government. The letter claims that without nutrient profiles, approved nutrition and health claims can be put on any food and non-alcoholic product – and as. The oldest public health organization in the Western Hemisphere. Regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization. Publication details Number.