Dr O'Sullivan's research interests are primarily in investigating the role of the endocannabinoid system in the vasculature in health and disease (funded by the . UoN Assoc Professor tweeting about the science I jmhw.infocology, clinical trials, cannabis-based medicines, cannabinoids, cannabidiol, academia Recall: Health Canada recalls mislabelled #cannabis oil sold in New Brunswick by @liivcannabis. Fully funded PhD research. Saoirse Elizabeth O'Sullivan of University of Nottingham, Nottingham (Notts) with E., Sarmad, S., Barrett, D. A., Larvin, M., Wright, K. L., Lund, J. N., O'Sullivan.
E. O’Sullivan Saoirse
Osteocalcin, vascular calcification and atherosclerosis: A single dose of cannabidiol reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study 15 2 12 , pii The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide increases human airway epithelial cell permeability through an arachidonic acide metabolite Pharmacol Res.
The endocannabinoid anandamide causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in human mesenteric arteries Pharmacological Research: Cannabinoids in experimental stroke: Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation. Changes in plasma levels of N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine following bariatric surgery in morbidly obese females with impaired glucose homeostasis.
Journal of diabetes research. Endocannabinoids and the cardiovascular system in health and disease. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology The effects of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-Arachidonoylglycerol on human osteoblast proliferation and differentiation PLoS One.
Vascular targets for cannabinoids: Remote conditioning or erythropoietin before surgery primes kidneys to clear ischemia-reperfusion-damaged cells: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. The effects of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome on the hydrolytic enzymes of the endocannabinoid system in animal and human adipocytes Lipids Health Dis. Cyclooxygenase metabolism mediates vasorelaxation to 2-arachidonoylglycerol 2-AG in human mesenteric arteries Pharmacol Res.
Cannabidiol improves vasorelaxation in Zucker diabetic fatty rats through cyclooxygenase activation. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics. Defining uremic arterial functional abnormalities in patients recently started on haemodialysis: Cyclooxygenase metabolism mediates vasorelaxation to 2-arachidonoylglycerol 2-AG in human mesenteric arteries.
Cannabinoids alter endothelial function in the Zucker rat model of type 2 diabetes. European journal of pharmacology. Cannabinoids and experimental stroke: Is the cardiovascular system a therapeutic target for cannabidiol? British journal of clinical pharmacology. Endocannabinoids and the cardiovascular response to stress.
Journal of psychopharmacology Oxford, England. Cannabinoids mediate opposing effects on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability British Journal of Pharmacology.
Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: The activity of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with BMI in metabolically healthy humans Lipids in Health and Disease.
The activity of the endocannabinoid metabolising enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase in subcutaneous adipocytes correlates with BMI in metabolically healthy humans.
Lipids in health and disease. Time-dependent vascular actions of cannabidiol in the rat aorta European Journal of Pharmacology. Rimonabant in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. British Journal of Pharmacology. Further characterization of the time-dependent vascular effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. This could suggest that our activities may not have been intense enough to elicit significant changes in circulating eCBs. A number of studies have shown that dance is an effective therapy in improving mood including mild depression , enhancing social interactions, boosting self-confidence, as well as improving physical activity Akandere and Demir, ; Kiepe et al.
In one study, dancing caused an increase in plasma serotonin levels and a decrease in negative psychological symptoms in a group of 20 female adolescents with mild depression, compared to 20 control subjects Jeong et al. We found post activity that there was a significant decrease in negative emotions following 30 min of dancing. It should be acknowledged that the decrease in negative emotions could also be because this was the activity undertaken on day 1 and participants had higher NAS scores before starting the study.
Our results suggest that dancing did not effectively increase eCB levels or improve mood, however this could be because they were unfamiliar with the class, therefore not finding it as enjoyable as singing as this was more familiar to them, or that the class was not at a high enough intensity to produce changes in eCB levels. It should also be noted that our participants were older than those previously studied, and there could be an age-related decline in the eCB response to exercise.
Reading was used as a control activity to assess baseline eCB levels and mood. We found that reading was the only activity that increased participants desire to eat but had little impact on overall fullness or actual hunger and was correlated to increases in OEA post activity. Reading also decreased the ratings for positive mood and emotions. In hindsight, because subjects were unaware of the task, the activity set-up looked like they were about to take an exam, which may have resulted in unforeseen heightened anxiety levels.
Recent studies have implicated the eCB system as a possible mediator of hedonic vs. They also found that higher levels of AEA at baseline, associated with decreased levels of anxiety. Furthermore, a common phenomenon is that typically negative emotions, particularly boredom, stress and depressive emotions increase our desire to eat in order to increase positive emotions Koball et al.
A limitation of our study is that participants already had very low negative affect scores and high positive affect scores. This suggests that the individuals that took part in the study were generally happy and positive and there was therefore little room for mood to be further improved.
It would therefore be interesting in future work to see the effects of these same activities on individuals that exhibit depressive, or anxious behavior in order to see greater differences in negative emotional responses. Intensity of a physical activity has also been shown to influence exercise induced increases in eCB levels.
This trend in eCB levels is also correlated with mood as the positive emotional state post exercise is not experienced at very low or very high intensities Berger and Motl, It can also not be overlooked that this study only recruited healthy female volunteers. Evidence from animal studies has already shown distinct sexual dimorphism in the eCB system, particularly in CB 1 expression and activation Reich et al.
Limited preliminary evidence from human studies have also shown variations in the eCB system between males and females Cupini et al. Thus future study should look to establish whether the effects observed in this study translate to male participants as well as females.
In conclusion, we found that activities other than running singing, dancing and cycling can increase plasma eCB levels. This preliminary evidence suggests that activities like singing could be recommended to individuals suffering from mood disorders such as anxiety and depression, as well as a potential therapy for neurological and inflammatory disorders.
PH carried out the blood draws from the subjects. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We would also like to thank the singing, dance and cycling instructors who supervised the activities for their time and help. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Behav Neurosci v. Published online Nov Stone , 1 Sophie A.
Millar , 1 Philip J. Herrod , 1 David A. Barrett , 2 Catharine A. Ortori , 2 Valerie A. Mellon , 3 and Saoirse E. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received Aug 24; Accepted Oct The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Abstract The euphoric feeling described after running is, at least in part, due to increased circulating endocannabinoids eCBs. Materials and Methods Participants All procedures were approved by the University of Nottingham Faculty of Health Sciences ethics committee, and were carried out according to the declaration of Helsinki. Study Days Subjects came to the test site on four occasions between 8 am and 10 am in loose fitting sportswear.
Results All but one of the participants completed the study in full; one participant was unable to finish the cycling activity and did not have a final blood draw or complete the surveys. Open in a separate window. Discussion It is well reported that running is correlated with mood elevation. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Activation of TRPV1 by the satiety factor oleoylethanolamide. The effect of dance over depression. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature , — Endocannabinoid and mood responses to exercise in adults with varying activity levels. Sleep restriction alters plasma endocannabinoids concentrations before but not after exercise in humans.
Psychoneuroendocrinology 74 , — The endogenous fatty acid amide, palmitoylethanolamide, has anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects in a murine model of neuropathic pain: Pain , — The endogenous cennabinoid system affects energy balance via central orexigenic drive and peripheral lipogenesis. Biochemical changes in endocannabinoid system are expressed in platelets of female but not male migraineurs. Cephalalgia 26 , — An introduction to the endocannabinoid system: Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor.
Science , — Palmitoylethanolamide inhibits the expression of fatty acid amide hydrolase and enhances the anti-proliferative effect of anandamide in human breast cancer cells.
Maternal high-fat diet induces sex-specific endocannabinoid system changes in newborn rats and programs adiposity, energy expenditure and food preference in adulthood. Acute stress increases circulating anandamide and other N-acylethanolamines in healthy humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 37 , — Palmitoylethanolamide in homeostatic and traumatic central nervous system injuries.
Drug Targets 12 , 55— Nature , 90— Masturbation to orgasm stimulates the release of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in humans. Oleoylethanolamide exerts partial and dose-dependent neuroprotection of substantia nigra dopamine neurons.
Neuropharmacology 56 , — Heart rate response to exercise stress testing in asymptomatic women: James women take heart project. Circulation , — Song-associated reward correlates with endocannabinoid-related gene expression in male European starlings Sturnus vulgaris.
Neuroscience , — N -Acylethanolamines and precursor phospholipids—relation to cell injury. Lipids , — Therapeutic utility of palmitoylethanolamide in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with various pathological conditions: Intense exercise increases circulating endocannabinoid and BDNF levels in humans—possible implications for reward and depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37 , — Serum endocannabinoid content is altered in females with depressive disorders: Pharmacopsychiatry 41 , 48— Dance movement therapy improves emotional responses and modulates neurohormones in adolescents with mild depression.
A review of the physiological effects and mechanisms of singing. Voice 32 , — New targets in pain, non-neuronal cells, and the role of palmitoylethanolamide. Effects of dance therapy and ballroom dances on physical and mental illnesses: Circulating endocannabinoid concentrations and sexual arousal in women. Effects of choir singing or listening on secretory immunoglobulin A, cortisol, and emotional state. Regulation of food intake by oleoylethanolamide.
Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Dance movement therapy for depression. Deranged endocannabinoid responses to hedonic eating in underweight and recently weight-restored patients with anorexia nervosa. Peripheral endocannabinoid responses to hedonic eating in binge-eating disorder.
Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine
Dr. Saoirse O'Sullivan is a leading researcher in the field of cannabinoid research. Awarded the title of International Cannabinoid Research. Saoirse Elizabeth O'Sullivan. University of Nottingham Joe Doris; Sophie A Millar; Iskandar Idris; Saoirse E O'Sullivan. Diabetes, obesity & metabolism. , Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: potential for modulation of inflammatory disease. SE O'Sullivan, DA Kendall.