You are probably very well versed with the concept and term 'alcohol'. Alkenes react with mercuric acetate in presence of H2O and tetrahydrofuran to give. The chemical name for alcohol is ethanol (CH3CH2OH). . For example, using the alcohol clamp method researchers were able to determine that male. metabolism; alcohol clamp method; alcohol elimination; alcohol 2 Michaelis- Menten kinetics is a model for describing the rates of biochemical reactions.
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However, in patients who have a peptic ulcer disease PUD , this mucosal layer is broken down. PUD is commonly associated with the bacteria H. Because alcohol stimulates a person's stomach to secrete acid, a person with PUD should avoid drinking alcohol on an empty stomach. Drinking alcohol causes more acid release, which further damages the already-weakened stomach wall.
Ingestion of alcohol can initiate systemic pro-inflammatory changes through two intestinal routes: The major portion of the blood supply to the liver is provided by the portal vein. Consequently, LPS levels increase in the portal vein, liver and systemic circulation after alcohol intake.
Immune cells in the liver respond to LPS with the production of reactive oxygen species ROS , leukotrienes, chemokines and cytokines. These factors promote tissue inflammation and contribute to organ pathology. Ethanol-containing beverages can cause alcohol flush reactions , exacerbations of rhinitis and, more seriously and commonly, bronchoconstriction in patients with a history of asthma , and in some cases, urticarial skin eruptions, and systemic dermatitis. Such reactions can occur within 1—60 minutes of ethanol ingestion, and may be caused by: Prolonged heavy consumption of alcohol can cause significant permanent damage to the brain and other organs.
Alcohol can cause permanent brain damage. An extreme example is Wernicke—Korsakoff syndrome. During the metabolism of alcohol via the respective dehydrogenases, NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is converted into reduced NAD. Normally, NAD is used to metabolize fats in the liver, and as such alcohol competes with these fats for the use of NAD. Prolonged exposure to alcohol means that fats accumulate in the liver, leading to the term 'fatty liver'. Continued consumption such as in alcoholism then leads to cell death in the hepatocytes as the fat stores reduce the function of the cell to the point of death.
These cells are then replaced with scar tissue, leading to the condition called cirrhosis. Ethanol is classified as a teratogen.
Centers for Disease Control CDC , alcohol consumption by women who are not using birth control increases the risk of fetal alcohol syndrome. The CDC currently recommends complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages for women of child-bearing age who are pregnant, trying to become pregnant, or are sexually active and not using birth control. IARC list ethanol in alcoholic beverages as Group 1 carcinogens and argues that "There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde the major metabolite of ethanol in experimental animals.
Frequent drinking of alcoholic beverages is a major contributing factor in cases of elevated blood levels of triglycerides. Alcohol consumption is rewarding and reinforcing and can result in addiction to alcohol, which is termed alcoholism. Discontinuation of alcohol after extended heavy use and associated tolerance development resulting in dependence can result in withdrawal.
Alcohol withdrawal can cause confusion , anxiety , insomnia , agitation , tremors , fever , nausea , vomiting , autonomic dysfunction , seizures , and hallucinations.
In severe cases, death can result. Delirium tremens is a condition that requires people with a long history of heavy drinking to undertake an alcohol detoxification regimen.
Death from ethanol consumption is possible when blood alcohol levels reach 0. A blood level of 0. Levels of even less than 0. Symptoms of ethanol overdose may include nausea , vomiting , central nervous system depression , coma , acute respiratory failure , or death. Disulfiram inhibits the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase , which in turn results in buildup of acetaldehyde , a toxic metabolite of ethanol with unpleasant effects.
The medication is used to treat alcoholism, and results in immediate hangover-like symptoms upon consumption of alcohol. Metronidazole is an antibacterial agent that kills bacteria by damaging cellular DNA and hence cellular function.
The reason is that alcohol and metronidazole can lead to side effects such as flushing, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and sweating. The proposed mechanism of action for this interaction is that metronidazole can bind to an enzyme that normally metabolizes alcohol. Binding to this enzyme may impair the liver's ability to process alcohol for proper excretion. The rate-limiting steps for the elimination of ethanol are in common with certain other substances.
As a result, the blood alcohol concentration can be used to modify the rate of metabolism of methanol and ethylene glycol. Methanol itself is not highly toxic, but its metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid are; therefore, to reduce the rate of production and concentration of these harmful metabolites, ethanol can be ingested.
Despite extensive research, the precise mechanism of action of ethanol has proven elusive and remains not fully understood. In spite of the preceding however, much progress has been made in understanding the pharmacodynamics of ethanol over the last few decades.
The reinforcing effects of alcohol consumption are mediated by acetaldehyde generated by catalase and other oxidizing enzymes such as cytochrome PE1 in the brain. Ethanol's rewarding and reinforcing i. With acute alcohol consumption, dopamine is released in the synapses of the mesolimbic pathway, in turn heightening activation of postsynaptic D 1 receptors.
With chronic alcohol intake, consumption of ethanol similarly induces CREB phosphorylation through the D 1 receptor pathway, but it also alters NMDA receptor function through phosphorylation mechanisms;   an adaptive downregulation of the D 1 receptor pathway and CREB function occurs as well.
Ethanol has been reported to possess the following actions in functional assays at varying concentrations: Some of the actions of ethanol on ligand-gated ion channels, specifically the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the glycine receptor, are dose-dependent , with potentiation or inhibition occurring dependent on ethanol concentration.
Ethanol can be taken orally , by inhalation , rectally , or by injection e. Food in the gastrointestinal system and hence gastric emptying is the most important factor that influences the absorption of orally ingested ethanol.
Upon ingestion, ethanol is rapidly distributed throughout the body. At even low physiological concentrations, ethanol completely saturates alcohol dehydrogenase. Some individuals have less effective forms of one or both of the metabolizing enzymes of ethanol, and can experience more marked symptoms from ethanol consumption than others. Ethanol is mainly eliminated from the body via metabolism into carbon dioxide and water.
Ethanol is also known chemically as alcohol, ethyl alcohol, or drinking alcohol. It is a simple alcohol with a molecular formula of C 2 H 6 O and a molecular weight of The latter can also be thought of as an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl alcohol group and can be abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol is a volatile , flammable , colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor.
Aside from its use as a psychoactive and recreational substance, ethanol is also commonly used as an antiseptic and disinfectant , a chemical and medicinal solvent , and a fuel.
Ethanol is produced naturally as a byproduct of the metabolic processes of yeast and hence is present in any yeast habitat, including even endogenously in humans. It is manufactured as a petrochemical through hydration of ethylene or by brewing via fermentation of sugars with yeast most commonly Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the case of the latter, the sugars are commonly obtained from sources like steeped cereal grains e. Petrochemical and yeast manufacturing routes both produce an ethanol—water mixture which can be further purified via distillation.
Ethanol has a variety of analogues , many of which have similar actions and effects. Methanol methyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol are toxic and are not safe for human consumption. The tertiary alcohol tert -amyl alcohol TAA , also known as 2-methylbutanol 2M2B , has a history of use as a hypnotic and anesthetic , as do other tertiary alcohols such as methylpentynol , ethchlorvynol , and chloralodol. Unlike primary alcohols like ethanol, these tertiary alcohols cannot be oxidized into aldehyde or carboxylic acid metabolites, which are often toxic, and for this reason, these compounds are safer in comparison.
Alcohol was brewed as early as 7, to 6, BCE in northern China. Alcohol is legal in most of the world. Alcohol causes a plethora of detrimental effects in society, both to the individual and to others. Alcohol is often used to facilitate sexual assault or rape. Alcohol abuse and dependence are major problems and many health problems as well as death can result from excessive alcohol use.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about ethanol as a psychoactive or recreational substance. For medical uses of ethanol, see Alcohol medicine.
For other uses, see Ethanol. C Risk not ruled out. Alcohol medicine , Short-term effects of alcohol consumption , and Alcohol intoxication. Alcohol and health and Health effects of wine. Short-term effects of alcohol consumption and Alcohol intoxication. Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions and Alcohol flush reaction. Long-term effects of alcohol consumption.
Fetal alcohol syndrome and Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Alcoholism and Alcohol abuse. Alcohol dependence and Alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Ethanol metabolism , Alcohol dehydrogenase , and Aldehyde dehydrogenase. Ethanol and Ethanol data page. Alcohol medicine , Ethanol fuel , Ethanol fermentation , and Yeast in winemaking. Drug-facilitated sexual assault and Date rape drug. Retrieved 3 March British Journal of Pharmacology. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Principles of Forensic Toxicology.
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Retrieved 21 October The brain is a major target for the actions of alcohol, and heavy alcohol consumption has long been associated with brain damage.
Studies clearly indicate that alcohol is neurotoxic, with direct effects on nerve cells. Chronic alcohol abusers are at additional risk for brain injury from related causes, such as poor nutrition, liver disease, and head trauma. World Journal of Hepatology. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research.
Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. Current Drug Abuse Reviews. An Introduction to Toxicology. Research and Public Policy. The alcohol clamp method also helps researchers study the genetics of alcohol metabolism, including differences in how volunteers who carry different versions of the ADH and ALDH genes metabolize alcohol 9.
Cells that are grown in the laboratory i. Additionally, because large quantities of cells can be cloned, researchers are able to repeat experiments many times in order to confirm findings. Variability of ethanol absorption and breath concentrations during a large-scale alcohol administration study.
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Variation in ethanol pharmacokinetics and perceived gender and ethnic differences in alcohol elimination. Sex difference in alcohol-related organ injury. Research advances in ethanol metabolism. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms influence alcohol-elimination rates in a male Jewish population. Use of cultured cells to study alcohol metabolism. Researchers continue to investigate the reasons why some people drink more than others and why some develop serious health problems because of their drinking.
Variations in the way the body breaks down and eliminates alcohol may hold the key to explaining these differences. New information will aid researchers in developing metabolism-based treatments and give treatment professionals better tools for determining who is at risk for developing alcohol-related problems. The genetics of alcohol metabolism: Role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase variants. Role of alcohol metabolism in chronic pancreatitis. How is alcohol metabolized by the body?
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Roles in alcohol metabolism and alcoholic liver disease. Progress in Liver Disease Evaluation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 promoter polymorphisms identified in human populations. Aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes in Japanese alcoholics. Alcohol metabolism in American Indians and whites: Lack of racial differences in metabolic rate and liver alcohol dehydrogenase. New England Journal of Medicine Alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer: A focus on reactive oxygen generation by the enzyme cytochrome P 2E1.
Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. Risk factors and mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with special emphasis on alcohol and oxidative stress.
Physiologic and genomic analyses of nutrition-ethanol interactions during gestation: Implications for fetal ethanol toxicity. Experimental Biology and Medicine Nutritional factors underlying the expression of the fetal alcohol syndrome.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Effects of pregnancy and nutritional status on alcohol metabolism. Proposed recommendations for the American College of Gastroenterology.
American Journal of Gastroenterology 93 The natural history of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Internal Medicine 40 5: This issue examines how differences in metabolism may lead to increased or reduced risk among individuals and ethnic groups for alcohol-related problems such as alcohol dependence, cancer, fetal alcohol effects, and pancreatitis.
Alcohol stimulates gastric juice production, even when food is not present, and as a result, its consumption stimulates acidic. Alcohol is metabolized in 2 stages. Metabolism of drugs by liver enzymes serves two purposes. First, metabolism is a way of “turning off” the action of a drug. Note on General method of preparation of Alcohol .. All three types of alcohol)1 0, 20, and 30) can be prepared by this method. Preparation of primary alcohol.