Learn more about Moringa uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Moringa. Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species in the genus Moringa, the only genus in the plant family Moringaceae. Common names include moringa. This is a detailed review of Moringa oleifera and its health benefits. Moringa is a plant that is very high in beneficial nutrients.
It is mainly used for food and has numerous industrial, medicinal and agricultural uses, including animal feeding. Nutritious, fast-growing and drought-tolerant, this traditional plant was rediscovered in the s and its cultivation has since become increasingly popular in Asia and Africa, where it is among the most economically valuable crops.
It has been dubbed the "miracle tree" or "tree of life" by the media FAO, ; Radovich, ; Orwa et al. Moringa is a small to medium evergreen or deciduous tree that can grow to a height of m. It has a spreading open crown, typically umbrella-shaped. The roots are deep. The bole is crooked, generally one-stemmed but sometimes forked from the base. The bark is corky and grey. The branches are fragile and drooping, with a feathery foliage.
Young twigs and shoots are covered in short dense hairs, purplish or greenish white in colour. Moringa leaves are alternate, cm long, tripinnately compound with each pinnate bearing pairs of leaflets that are dark green, elliptical to obovate, and cm in length.
The inflorescences are cm long, spreading panicles bearing many fragrant flowers. Moringa flowers are pentamerous, zygomorphic, mm long and white to cream in colour. The fruit is green when young and turns brown at maturity.
The mature fruit splits open along each angle to expose the seeds. All parts of moringa are consumed as food. The plant produces leaves during the dry season and during times of drought, and is an excellent source of green vegetable when little other food is available FAO, Moringa is mainly grown for its leaves in Africa, and much appreciated for its pods in Asia Bosch, Leaves, pods, roots and flowers can be cooked as vegetables.
The roots have been used as a substitute for horseradish but may be slightly toxic. The leaves are very nutritious and rich in protein, vitamins A, B and C, and minerals.
They are highly recommended for pregnant and nursing mothers as well as young children FAO, They are generally cooked boiled, pan-fried and eaten like spinach or put in soups and sauces.
Moringa leaves are also eaten as a salad or dried and ground to make a very nutritious leaf powder. Moringa leaf powder is used to aid the restoration of infants suffering from malnutrition.
Moringa flowers are used to make tea, added into sauces or made into a paste and fried. The young pods are prepared, and taste like asparagus. Ben oil is resistant to rancidity and provides substantial amounts of oleic acid, sterols and tocopherols FAO, ; Yu et al. Moringa leaves are a valuable source of protein for ruminants but they have a moderate palatability. They are used in smallholder rabbit farming in several African countries. Using moringa leaves for feeding poultry, pigs and fish is feasible but only in limited amounts due to the presence of fibre and antinutritional factors.
Moringa oil seed cake, the by-product of oil extraction, is not very palatable to livestock and mainly used as green manure or a flocculating agent in water purification. Moringa seeds appear to be toxic to rabbits. Moringa oil has various industrial applications. Moringa oil has qualities needed for a biodiesel feedstock Rashid et al.
At the time of writing December , several projects to produce biodiesel from moringa seeds were under way in Asia and Africa. They are a natural alternative to the toxic alumine generally used for treating water see Environmental impact below. Moringa timber is soft and can only be used for light constructions, but it can produce fibre for ropes and mats as well as pulp for the paper industry. Phytohormones extracted from moringa leaves have been shown to have a growth enhancing effect on various plants, including black gram, peanut, soybean, sugarcane and coffee.
In the Philippines, due to their high iron content, moringa leaves are used in the treatment of aenemia. Moringa roots and bark are used in cardiac and circulatory problems Orwa et al.
Uses in ethnomedicine are numerous and beyond the scope of this datasheet. Moringa is now naturalized in most African countries, in the Caribbean Islands and in Central America. Low temperatures and frost can kill the plant back to ground level but regrowth occurs quickly once the temperatures increase. Moringa grows better where annual rainfall is about mm. However, it is tolerant of drought and survives where rainfall is as low as mm, though foliage production under such conditions is reduced.
Moringa has a low tolerance of waterlogging. It thrives in full sunlight. Moringa does well on a wide range of soils, with pH ranging from 4. India is the main exporter of moringa: In Africa, leaves are the main product for local trade Bosch, Moringa can be grown in pure stands, or in mixtures with many other tree species such as leucaena Leucaena leucocephala and guacima Guazuma ulmifolia , with vegetables species in alley cropping, or with grasses or cereal crops New Forests Project, ; Petit Aldana et al.
Moringa is propagated from seeds or from cuttings. When it is grown from seeds it can be sown either directly or in containers. Moringa should be sown at the beginning of the rainy season on an elevated seedbed so that it is protected from waterlogging, but it can benefit from soil moisture. Spacings as small as 5 x 10 cm to 20 x 20 cm were successfully used for leaf production in home-gardening conditions Gadzirayi et al. When moringa is cultivated for pod production, 2. This level of spacing is also suitable when moringa is intercropped with another plant species.
Moringa has an outstanding growth rate and can be harvested for foliage in less than 2. Optimal cutting intervals range from 15 to 75 days, depending on local conditions Sultana et al. Highest growth and forage yield are obtained under warm, dry conditions, with some supplementary fertilizer and irrigation Radovich, Plant management is important for leaf production.
Pollarding and coppicing promote leafy regrowth and enhance leaf yield Orwa et al. Moringa trees grown for pod production can be harvested 7 months after planting. In Tanzania, seed yield was reported to be about 3. Moringa seed powder has antibacterial properties that make it useful as a natural clarifier for water purification systems and fish ponds Aruna et al.
It is considered as a potential natural and inexpensive alternative to toxic alum, but further investigation is required since moringa seed powder may have negative effects when combined with chlorine treatment. It was found to promote bacteria regrowth after the first removal of the bacteria Egbuikwem et al. Moringa seed powder can be toxic to animals and particularly to fish.
This toxicity may be used in pond management to control predators of cultured fish. Common carp exposed for 35 days at the latter concentration had significant changes in all their blood parameters Kavitha et al. Moringa leaves are usually considered as a source of protein. Moringa leaves may thus be used as an antioxidant feed Makkar et al. Moringa leaves have been found free of trypsin inhibitors.
Moringa leaves and twigs contained limited amounts of cyanogenic glucosides Makkar et al. The latter study did not detect glucosinolates in the leaves and only trace amounts in leaves and stems, but later trials using a different method of analysis reported significant amounts of glucosinolates Bennett et al. Condensed tannins are either absent Makkar et al. Ethanol-extracted leaf meals were not reported to contain antinutritional factors Afuang et al.
Moringa seeds contain important amounts of glucosinolates Bennett et al. Moringa seed cake was also found to contain significant amounts of glucosinolates and phytate Some haemagglutination activity was detected in the meal Makkar et al. Moringa leaves are a good source of digestible protein, digestible OM and energy for ruminants and, therefore, a valuable protein supplement.
In addition, they are a valuable mineral supplementation when minerals are limited or unavailable. The palatability of moringa forage has been reported to be only average.
Moringa leaves could successfully supplement low-quality forage diets and improve animal performance. However, when included in ruminants diets to replace concentrates commercial, sunflower meal, soybean meal , animal performance tended to be reduced.
Moringa leaves are typically fed fresh to ruminants. However, they have been ensiled alone, or in mixtures with Napier grass or sugarcane, to increase the nutritive value of the silage Mendieta-Araica et al. The palatability of moringa is average. Compared to several shrub and tree species in Cuba and Venezuela, moringa leaves were only moderately consumed by cattle, sheep and goats Garcia et al. However, when used as sole supplement or included into a concentrate in diets for growing goats, the DMI of Moringa oleifera leaves was comparable or higher to that of leucaena Leucaena leucocephala or gliricidia Gliricidia sepium Ndemanisho et al.
Moringa leaves are a valuable source of protein for ruminants. Moringa leaves and stems contain low amounts of tannins with no or low amounts of condensed tannins Bakhashwain et al.
The levels of glucosinolates found in moringa leaves were not reported to impair ruminant nutrition Bennett et al. However, they contain saponins, which may impair palatability. In Nigeria, including moringa leaf meal in ruminant diets reduced their metabolizable energy content, OM digestibility and production of short chain fatty acids Tona et al. Moringa leaves have been assessed as a protein supplement for medium or low producing dairy cows fed low-quality forages.
Feeding moringa leaves had variable effects on DM intake and milk yield but did not change milk composition. Moringa leaves offered as the sole forage fresh or ensiled plus molasses gave the same results as a low quality forage supplemented with concentrate. Fresh moringa leaves used as the sole forage fed to dairy cows negatively modified the smell and taste of milk and cheese, which could have been due to the presence of glucosinolates in the leaves.
Milk from cows fed ensiled moringa leaves did not have off-flavour and aroma, possibly because the ensiling process destroyed most of the glucosinolates, as observed with other forages Mendieta-Araica et al. In growing steers, moringa leaves used as the sole concentrate and fed at 0. Moringa leaves totally replaced cottonseed cake for growing lambs fed on low-quality hay. Supplementing growing goats fed on grass hay and wheat bran with moringa leaf meal, instead of sunflower cake, resulted in higher meat quality physical and chemical characteristics together with organoleptic quality parameters, including higher first bite, aroma, flavour and juiciness scores Moyo et al.
Information about the nutritive value of moringa leaves and seed cake in pig feeding is scarce. Feeding trials with moringa leaf meal have been only partly successful as high inclusion rates were found detrimental to performance.
There has been a lot of research on the potential of moringa leaf meal dried and ground moringa leaves as an alternative feed ingredient for poultry, due to the rising interest in moringa and because the leaves have a high protein content.
However, the digestibility of diets containing moringa leaf meal was found to be lower than that of control diets, especially for crude protein and therefore amino acids , which was partly due to the fibre content, which also limits its energy value in poultry Abou-Elezz et al. While some literature reviews have been quite optimistic Moreki et al. Inclusion rates as low as Feed intake is generally not much affected, which leads to a reduction in feed efficiency.
The depression in growth is linked by some to unbalanced diets, in other cases it appears to be a direct effect of moringa. However, this detrimental effect of moringa is not constant and in some trials performance was similar to but seldom higher than those obtained with control diets, even with 7.
The general recommendation is to avoid the use of moringa leaf meal in intensive broiler production, as the risk of a loss in performance is high. A cost-benefit analysis is required on a per case basis, as including moringa leaf meal may reduce the need to purchase high priced ingredients. Moringa leaf meal and moringa leaf extracts, because of their active compounds, have been tested in poultry as feed additives for their potential benefits on poultry health and meat or egg quality.
However, there can be negative affects on digestion and metabolic processes. No major toxicity problems have been reported Ashong et al. The effect of moringa on serum and egg cholesterol levels is disputed, as some studies report a decrease in cholesterol e.
As a consequence, moringa leaf meal cannot be used reliably to regulate cholesterol levels in poultry products. In Benin and Ghana, they are used by smallholder rabbit farmers as a traditional nutritive forage, which is particularly valuable in the dry season when other forages are not available Adoukonou, , personal communication; Osei et al.
In Nigeria, moringa leaves are used in rabbit research as a standard forage fed with concentrates Ola et al. Because rabbits consume both the leaves and the tender stems Osei et al.
These trials generally concluded that moringa leaf meal can be used safely in rabbit feeding, with no reduction in growth rate, feed efficiency, slaughter yield or blood parameters. However, moringa leaf meal has been linked to a slight but significant reduction of serum glucose and serum cholesterol concentration Rajeshwari et al. The main limit to the use of moringa leaf meal for feeding growing rabbits is the required nutritional balance of the diets rather than the product itself.
Likewise, the digestible energy content of moringa leaf meal may be estimated from Therefore, it is recommended that the composition and nutritional value of moringa leaf meal is assessed on a per case basis before it is used in balanced rabbit diets. The relatively high energy content of moringa leaf meal is partly due to its low fibre content but also to its unusually high concentration of lipids.
Moringa leaves and their extracts may have an immunomodulating effect. Inclusion of moringa leaves in the diets of growing rabbits had an antihyperglycemic or hypoglycemic effect and an hypocholesterolemic activity Rajeshwari et al. Literature on the use of moringa seeds in rabbit feeding is nonexistent at the time of writing December It is not known whether this was due to an intrinsic toxicity of moringa seeds, which contain glucosinolates, or to a post-harvest contamination, as the seeds had been stored for several months before use Adoukonou, , personal communication.
In support of the toxicity hypothesis, it should be noted that moringa seeds fed to growing rats resulted in low feed intakes, impaired growth and physiological troubles Oliveira et al. Therefore, the use of moringa seeds in rabbits feeding cannot be recommended until trials demonstrate its safety. Moringa leaf meal is rich in protein and has been tested in various fish species as a potential replacement for fish meal.
However, feeding trials show that only limited amounts of moringa leaf meal can be safely used in fish diets, which is probably due to the presence of phenolics, saponins, phytic acid and other metabolites with antinutritional effects in fish Richter et al.
The product was still highly unpalatable to fish, who spat out the feed pellets Madalla, Different moringa leaf extracts tannin-reduced, saponin-reduced and saponin-enriched were all shown to reduce fish performance Dongmeza et al. Moringa leaf meal included at Higher rates resulted in poorer fish performance, a reduced feed conversion ratio and lower protein efficiency.
No signs of pathology were observed at any inclusion level Yuangsoi et al. In carp, moringa leaf meal was included at 8. Moringa seeds and bark contain several chemical substances that are potentially useful for pond management. Aregheore, ; Babiker, ; Bakhashwain et al.
Plant and animal families Plant and animal species. Datasheet Description Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans. Moringa leaves, moringa forage Moringa leaf meal Moringa seed cake, moringa oil seed cake, moringa oilseed cake. Fruits and by-products Oil plants and by-products Other forage plants Forage plants. Morphology Moringa is a small to medium evergreen or deciduous tree that can grow to a height of m.
Utilisation Food uses All parts of moringa are consumed as food. Feed uses Moringa leaves are a valuable source of protein for ruminants but they have a moderate palatability. Industrial uses Moringa oil has various industrial applications. Agricultural uses Phytohormones extracted from moringa leaves have been shown to have a growth enhancing effect on various plants, including black gram, peanut, soybean, sugarcane and coffee.
Establishment and culture Moringa can be grown in pure stands, or in mixtures with many other tree species such as leucaena Leucaena leucocephala and guacima Guazuma ulmifolia , with vegetables species in alley cropping, or with grasses or cereal crops New Forests Project, ; Petit Aldana et al.
Harvest and yields Moringa has an outstanding growth rate and can be harvested for foliage in less than 2. Toxicity and pond management Moringa seed powder can be toxic to animals and particularly to fish. Moringa leaves Moringa leaves are usually considered as a source of protein. Moringa leaves Moringa leaves have been found free of trypsin inhibitors. Moringa seed cake Moringa seeds contain important amounts of glucosinolates Bennett et al.
Moringa leaves Moringa leaves are a good source of digestible protein, digestible OM and energy for ruminants and, therefore, a valuable protein supplement. Palatability The palatability of moringa is average. Nutritive value Moringa leaves are a valuable source of protein for ruminants. Dairy cattle Moringa leaves have been assessed as a protein supplement for medium or low producing dairy cows fed low-quality forages.
No changes in milk composition. Reyes Sanchez et al. The best ratio moringa: No milk yield Milk yield was lower Sheep Moringa leaves totally replaced cottonseed cake for growing lambs fed on low-quality hay. Daily gain with moringa was similar to that of concentrate Broilers While some literature reviews have been quite optimistic Moreki et al.
Moringa as a feed additive Moringa leaf meal and moringa leaf extracts, because of their active compounds, have been tested in poultry as feed additives for their potential benefits on poultry health and meat or egg quality. Moringa seeds Literature on the use of moringa seeds in rabbit feeding is nonexistent at the time of writing December African catfish Clarias gariepinus Moringa leaf meal included at Common carp Cyprinus carpio In carp, moringa leaf meal was included at 8. Moringa extracts as pond management tool Moringa seeds and bark contain several chemical substances that are potentially useful for pond management.
They can be used to control early undesirable fish reproduction in fish ponds Ampofo-Yeboah et al. Moringa seed powder contains a natural floculating agent that can replace toxic alum to remove organic matter from pond water. However, it has been shown to result in pathologic lesions in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Ayotunde et al.
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value. Moringa Moringa oleifera , leaves, fresh Moringa Moringa oleifera , leaves, dried Moringa Moringa oleifera , pods Moringa Moringa oleifera , oil meal, solvent-extracted. Moringa seeds are highly effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and skin-infecting Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. They also contain fungicide terygospermin and potent antibiotic. The bark and the roots are more concentrated as well as they have most of the properties mentioned above.
If they are used as medicines, extra care should be taken. Moringa Oleifera is considered as one of the most useful and valuable plans as every part of the tree can be used. Moringa tree parts have many uses according to Indian Ayurvedic medicine, such as aiding the childbirth process, acting as a natural antibiotic, and treating disorders of the liver, amongst many other functions. Siddha medicine is a traditional medicine system that originated in South India and Sri Lanka.
According to Siddha, moringa benefits sexual performance in both men and women. The drumstick seeds are frequently used for treating erectile dysfunction.
Discover the best selection of quality Moringa products here. You describe a common issue with so few able to question a dr and ask why?
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The medicinal uses and benefits of Moringa.
A look at the benefits of moringa, a plant native to India with a variety of Moringa oleifera is a plant that is often called the drumstick tree, the. Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae), commonly known as Moringa, is native to northwestern India, and widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical areas. In Africa, it. Moringa oleifera, native to India, grows in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is commonly known as 'drumstick tree' or 'horseradish tree'.