Apr 16, high expectations (overconfidence) when outcomes also depend on an .. misguided learning under Assumption 1, and in Section 4, we study. Nov 7, Unrealistic Expectations and Misguided Learning ignored literature: that studying the positive consequences of unrealistic self-views. 4 / Aug 2, We explore the learning process and behavior of an individual with unrealistically high expectations (overconfidence) when outcomes also.
Expectations 4. Misguided
Set the record straight. If you did, what did you learn? What difference did it make? Flickr user Amir Jina ]. By Cali Williams Yost 3 minute Read. I asked them how they used their smartphones and laptops to stay connected to work after traditional business hours: Which teacher would you guess had fewer behavioral problems as the year progressed?
There are a whole host of benefits to intentionally promoting clear and shared classroom expectations. A survey of the research demonstrates many of them that would be largely anticipated such as: However, other benefits of clear expectations are less obvious, such as: Examine an environment in which there is a lot of anger, resentment, and pain-giving.
As you examine it more closely, do you find a desire on the part of those involved to create clear expectations? Perhaps, if they are tired of the frustration but have developed a habit of attack and retaliation, you will notice that the expectations are rather vague, and the parties like to keep it that way. Why do you think this is? As teachers, the more deliberate and intentional we are about promoting our classroom expectations, the more effective we will be. Moreover, the expectations that guide the class will be those that are desirable and that lead to the mutual benefit of teacher and student.
As one examines how expectations are intentionally cultivated in a classroom, it is evident that some strategies demonstrate a greater capacity to promote quality behavior than others. We could say that the most effective intentional strategies would be those that function to do the following: Using this principle, if we were to evaluate the effectiveness of the most commonly incorporated strategies according to their ability to create positive expectations, we would observe a substantial variation in effectiveness.
An approximation of the effectiveness ratings for each strategy is offered in Figure 4. Approximate rating of common management practices related to their ability to create clarity of expectations and a positive association with the expected behavior, from most four stars to least effective no stars.
Clarifying Questions Expectation Cues. Strategies that do a great deal to create cause and effect clarity and positive associations related to expectations. Use promotes movement up the effectiveness continuum. Strategies that do little to promote expectations and create inconsequential or confusing emotional climates. Use promotes little movement up or down continuum.
Irrational or Negative Actions. Threats and Put Downs. Strategies that do very little to promote clarity and do a great deal to create negative associations with the desired behavior. Use promotes mostly movement down the effectiveness continuum. Strategies that vary greatly depending on how they are used. Each of these strategies rated in Figure 4. Purposeful action on the part of the teacher is rated at the top of the list for the simple reason that actions really do speak louder than words.
No matter what we say, students learn about our class from what we do. In a sense, words are technically action, but in an operational sense they can also be perceived as inaction. Actions demonstrate that we are committed to our words. Actions take more effort than words, so students learn what we value and who we are by what we make the effort to do.
Conversely, inaction sends a powerful message as well. When we fail to follow through on our agreements or responsibilities, we undermine the cause-and-effect relationship between choices and consequences in the class, and shift the locus of control away from the student internally to ourselves externally. When we complain as opposed to take action to change the problem, we show the students that we are more interested in image management as opposed to the quality of the learning in the class.
Our actions are the primary means by which we promote the responsibility-freedom social frame in the class. These lessons are learned in most cases through indirect or social learning. For example, when there is a classroom expectation that is collectively understood e. Positive recognitions will also be useful as we will discuss later, but a change in practical action will have an even greater effect on the development of the expectation. Conversely, when we have set up an expectation that implies that if the student does not do A, then as teacher we are responsible to do B e.
Recall teachers whom you have had in the past, or have observed recently. Contrast those teachers who tended to take action and followed through on agreements versus those teachers who did a lot of telling but seldom took action. In which classrooms were the expectations clearer? Which strategy was more effective at changing behavior? Positive recognitions have a powerful effect. However, we need to first distinguish them from what we term personal recognitions or praise. Praise, by its nature, leads to dependence on an external source, and is not readily associated with learning.
What do students infer when they hear it? Personal recognitions are more effective than negative recognitions such as mentioning who is not listening, but they run the risk of having negative effects associated with praise; that is, operating as an emotional extrinsic reinforcement of persons, not behavior Kohn, Notice the specificity of the feedback. The effect will be that it will feel positive and encouraging to those that received the recognition, but it does not sound personal.
And it will have the effect of modeling that quality performance to the other students. Positive recognitions can be focused primarily on either the collective, or on particular individuals or groups.
There are advantages to each level of attention. The advantages of recognizing a collective accomplishment include: While these emotions experienced by the members of the recognized group are subtle, over time they can have a powerful cumulative effect. The group feels a progressive sense of pride and cohesion as their efforts are acknowledged. With time, the group begins to associate collective function with fulfilling the need for belonging. In addition, the growing level of trust generates acceptance and a feeling of emotional ease.
Judge the assumption for yourself use your own experiences. Recall a situation in which you found yourself working with a group of people with whom you worked well and grew to trust. Recollect your level of anxiety. How about your acceptance level of what was taking place?
Now recall a situation where you found yourself working with a group that you did not trust very much. Where was your level of anxiety throughout the process?
How critical were you of the final outcomes in each case? When we evaluate the use of positive behavioral recognitions of collective behavior in relation to our two principles for judging the quality of expectation promoting strategies see Figure 4.
Collective positive recognitions have the effect of identifying behavior very specifically and therefore making expectations very clear and concrete. Over time, their use promotes a steady progress up the continuum of management effectiveness to greater levels of function. Pedagogical suggestion box 4. If generating the language for your positive recognitions is not coming easily, the following phrases may be helpful general examples: Now see how well we are doing.
The advantages of recognition of individual or individual group behavior are: Recall the social learning model from the previous chapter--the power of positive recognition becomes more evident.
When the teacher recognizes a behavior or academic performance demonstrated by a particular student that exemplifies quality effort or thinking or clarifies the requirements of the task, the effect is that the other students have information that they can use. When we silently observe and evaluate student performance on a task, we tend to learn a great deal about what would help the students do better.
This is typically the case. Students work in isolation and we gain the benefits of insight as we monitor their learning. However, when we make audible what we have observed in the form of positive recognitions of high quality efforts and task clarifications, the students gain the benefit of our insight.
If you do not already provide your students with frequent and intentional positive recognitions, you may want to take part in some active research in this area. For some amount of time--an hour should be sufficient--find as many opportunities as you can to make positive recognitions.
After the hour, note the degree to which the students show a clear understanding of and investment in the task. Also note the affect in the room. Does it feel more positive and focused? A clarifying statement is one in which the teacher or in some cases a student simply states the necessary behavioral expectation. It is not a positive or negative recognition. It is simply a neutral clarification, stated positively.
Clarifying statements work like focusing a lens. They do not change the picture, or interpret it. They just help the students refocus their efforts a bit more intentionally. It is just a statement to help focus the expectation lens more clearly. It affirms the expectation was already understood, but may have been a little fuzzy. Providing good direction in any activity is critical.
In the next chapter, we will discuss a systematic method for giving directions that promotes accountability and a culture of responsibility. Mantras act on the conscious level as clarifying statements and on the unconscious level to condition thinking.
Mantras work to the extent that they are stated repetitively. The mantra begins to become internalized. Moreover, your use of the mantra sends a message to your students that you believe in them, will only accept the best they have to offer, and will not give up on them. Over time you will see not only behavior change but also a change in their self-concept related to the particular expectation.
Ultimately, the evidence that a mantra has been substantially internalized will be when you begin to hear them come out of the mouths of the students as they interact with one another. Clarifying questions ask students to reflect on their actions in relation to an operating behavioral expectation.
When compared to clarifying statements, clarifying questions have the effect of eliciting not simply recognition of the expectation but also subjective interpretation. To illustrate the difference, it may help to examine an example of each type of statement related to the same expectation: Each statement will have the effect of focusing the expectation lens.
Neither is judgmental or distracting. However, it is instructive to reflect upon what types of thinking each will elicit.
The clarifying statement effectively brings awareness to the task. However, the clarifying question adds the dimension of promoting reflection as well. In the clarifying statement, few students will hear the implication related to the quality of the task. When is it best to use a question rather than a statement? It will depend of course on the situation. But a general principle might be to use questions more frequently when the particular expectation has already been shown to be clearly understood and demonstrated at least once.
Before then it will likely be more frustrating than useful. When we tell a student what to do, we are in essence keeping them dependent on our instructions to perform.
As the classroom expectations become more internalized, we can begin to simply expect, and then recognize, rather than tell. Cues will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter. Consider the following two statements: In the second statement, the implicit assumption is that the students already know what ready means, what is required to meet the expectation in this case to move with a sense of urgency to get prepared for a new activity , and what potential consequences might be for meeting or not meeting the expectation.
So what is the difference? It will depend on how the cue cause is supported by consequences effect. What is the benefit, advantage or consequence for being ready? It could be getting to go first, or some other privilege, a common understanding that time is of the essence, or the awareness that being ready demonstrates respect to the other members of the class.
Even if the reward is as small as getting to go first, students will act quickly to get ready. However, it has the effect of defining the purpose of getting ready quickly as getting to go sooner. Within the 1-Style approach, it may be effective to incorporate competitive incentives early in the year, and as students begin to internalize the value of the expected behavior, weaning them off the extrinsic incentives over time.
For those attempting to incorporate a 1-Style approach it will be helpful to progressively tap into more intrinsic forms of motivation for meeting expectation, such as the realization that it shows respect to the other members of the class, as the year goes on. When is it best to use expectation cues rather than directions?
As with the choice between clarifying statements or questions, it is best to be as direct and concrete as possible at first, and as the expectation becomes better understood both conceptually and practically, one will find that using expectation cues the majority of the time will get the best results.
He's a well-known recording rat, an artist more concerned with accumulating material than piecing together a neat, concise LP tracklist. Enter Sorry 4 the Wait , a literal apology just like No Ceilings , Wayne works in the mixtape's title at the end of almost every song for Tez pushing C4 back. Sorry isn't No Ceilings II , and anyone with an expectation that lofty should consider the circumstances.
Wayne planned No Ceilings as a reminder he could still rap it came during full-blown Rebirth mode and as a celebration of the beats he liked on the radio. This is why Wayne's rhymes still sharper than he's given credit for, likely because of his stature have a free-associative, overall off-the-cuff feel on Sorry. Pushing an anticipated release back is a corporate move, and Lil Wayne doesn't think or work that way. He responded the only way he knows how -- giving his fans free music.
Unrealistic Expectations and Misguided Learning ∗
Oct 13, Unrealistic Expectations and Misguided Learning. Article in Econometrica 86(4): · January with 9 Reads. DOI: /. Unrealistic Expectations and Misguided Learning ∗ of an individual with unrealistically high expectations about ability when outcomes also View 4 Excerpts. Small steps are way better than misguided big ones. — Maxie Mccoy, Good Housekeeping, "Feeling Lost? 4 Steps to Finding Purpose and Direction Right Now,".