The central question is whether CBD is simply a food supplement, an investigational new medicine, or even a narcotic. This overview paper. California restaurants that have been serving cannabidiol, or CBD oil, in foods or cocktails might need to adjust their approach, or quit serving it. Here's our easy & basic guide to what is CBD and what does CBD do. It is a relatively new food supplement that is still being researched, and while the .. Cannabis ruderalis is a species native to Russia that flowers earlier and is able to .
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What are hemp oils and CBD oils? A number of products with names such as hemp oil, hemp seed oil, cannabidiol oil, CBD oil or CBD hemp oil recently entered the Irish market. These products are derived from the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. They are typically marketed as food supplements or dietary supplements in liquid or capsule form. Oil is obtained from the hemp plant by cold-pressing the seeds or other parts of the hemp plant.
This oil naturally contains low levels of cannabidiol CBD , a non-psychoactive compound. Are there any authorised health claims for hemp oils or CBD oils? A health claim is any claim that states, suggests or implies that a relationship exists between a food category, a food or one of its constituents and health.
Can medicinal claims be made about hemp oils or CBD oils? Medicinal claims are those which attribute to food the property of preventing, treating or curing a human disease. It is not permitted to make a medicinal claim about food. Products that either contain a medicinal substance or make a medicinal claim are considered to be medicinal products. Who authorises CBD for medicinal use in Ireland? At present there are no authorised medicines in Ireland that contain CBD as the only active ingredient.
Accordingly, CBD products currently being sold for consumer use are not approved for the prevention or treatment of medical conditions or symptoms associated with such conditions.
Is it legal to grow hemp? Yes, under licence from the Department of Health, certain varieties of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa are legally grown for a range of uses including for food and feed. The cannabis plant contains a range of cannabinoids — some of which are psychoactive affect the mind and some not. Is this page useful? How can we improve this website? Did you know some forms of this oil are not allowed to be sold as food or food supplements in the EU?
Online Information Centre Current food safety issues which may be of interest to the food industry More about our online information centre. In , the U. In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0. A gram portion of hulled hemp seeds supplies calories. Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, milk, eggs and soy.
Hemp oil oxidizes and turns rancid within a short period of time if not stored properly;  its shelf life is extended when it is stored in a dark airtight container and refrigerated. Both light and heat can degrade hemp oil. Hemp fiber has been used extensively throughout history, with production climaxing soon after being introduced to the New World. For centuries, items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was also commonly used to make sail canvas.
The word "canvas" is derived from the word cannabis. For clothing, in some instances, hemp is mixed with lyocell . Concrete-like blocks made with hemp and lime have been used as an insulating material for construction. Such blocks are not strong enough to be used for structural elements; they must be supported by a brick, wood, or steel frame. The most common use of hemp lime in building is by casting the hemp and lime mix while wet around a timber frame with temporary shuttering, and tamping the mix to form a firm mass; after the removal of the temporary shuttering, the solidified hemp mix is then ready to be plastered with a lime plaster.
The first example of the use of hempcrete was in in France with the renovation of the Maison de la Turquie in Nogent-sur-Seine by the innovator Charles Rasetti. Completed in , the Renewable House is one of the most technologically advanced made from hemp-based materials.
A panellized system of hemp-lime panels for use in building construction is currently under test in a European Union-funded research collaboration led by the University of Bath. The panels are being designed to assure high-quality construction, rapid on-site erection, optimal hygrothermal performance from day one, and energy- and resource-efficient buildings.
The month-long work programme aims to refine product and manufacturing protocols, produce data for certification and marketing, warranty, insurance cover, and availability of finance.
It also includes the development of markets in Britain, France, and Spain. Hemp is used as an internal plaster and is a mixture of hemp hurd shive mixed with larger proportions of a lime-based binder.
Hemp plaster has insulative qualities. Concrete block made with hemp in France. A mixture of fiberglass , hemp fiber, kenaf , and flax has been used since to make composite panels for automobiles. Hemp paper are paper varieties consisting exclusively or to a large extent from pulp obtained from fibers of industrial hemp.
The products are mainly specialty papers such as cigarette paper  , banknotes and technical filter papers . Compared to wood pulp, hemp pulp offers a four to five times longer fibre, a significantly lower lignin fraction as well as a higher tear resistance and tensile strength.
However, production costs are about four times higher than for paper from wood  , so hemp paper could not be used for mass applications as printing, writing and packaging paper. Hemp jewellery includes bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches, and other adornments. Some jewellery features beads made from crystals, glass , stone , wood and bones. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors.
There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewellery, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most common. In recent years, hemp has been growing in popularity as a material used in shoes. The strength of hemp fibers makes it an ideal material for shoes because it is durable. In addition, it is breathable and naturally antimicrobial, so it does not hold on to odors.
Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships , though the rope had to be protected by tarring , since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot , as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside. Hemp rope was phased out when manila rope , which does not require tarring, became widely available. Hemp shives are the core of the stem, hemp hurds are broken parts of the core. In the EU, they are used for animal bedding horses, for instance , or for horticultural mulch.
Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation —the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air.
Hemp crops are tall, have thick foliage, and can be planted densely, and thus can be grown as a smother crop to kill tough weeds. However, due to the plant's rapid and dense growth characteristics, some jurisdictions consider hemp a prohibited and noxious weed, much like Scotch Broom.
The dense growth of hemp helps kill weeds, even thistle. Biodiesel can be made from the oils in hemp seeds and stalks; this product is sometimes called "hempoline".
Filtered hemp oil can be used directly to power diesel engines. In , Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine, which he intended to power "by a variety of fuels, especially vegetable and seed oils, which earlier were used for oil lamps , i. Production of vehicle fuel from hemp is very small. Commercial biodiesel and biogas is typically produced from cereals, coconuts, palmseeds, and cheaper raw materials like garbage, wastewater, dead plant and animal material, animal feces and kitchen waste.
Separation of hurd and bast fiber is known as decortication. Traditionally, hemp stalks would be water- retted first before the fibers were beaten off the inner hurd by hand, a process known as scutching. As mechanical technology evolved, separating the fiber from the core was accomplished by crushing rollers and brush rollers, or by hammer-milling, wherein a mechanical hammer mechanism beats the hemp against a screen until hurd, smaller bast fibers, and dust fall through the screen.
After the Marijuana Tax Act was implemented in , the technology for separating the fibers from the core remained "frozen in time". Recently, new high-speed kinematic decortication has come about, capable of separating hemp into three streams; bast fiber, hurd, and green microfiber.
Only in , did Ireland, parts of the Commonwealth and other countries begin to legally grow industrial hemp again. Iterations of the s decorticator have been met with limited success, along with steam explosion and chemical processing known as thermomechanical pulping. Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere. Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that display a wide range of traits; e.
Hemp grown for fiber is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. Use of industrial hemp plant and its cultivation was commonplace until the s, when it was associated with its genetic sibling a. Influential groups misconstrued hemp as a dangerous "drug", even though it is not a 'drug' and it has the potential to be a sustainable and profitable alternative crop.
In the United States, the public's perception of hemp as marijuana has blocked hemp from becoming a useful crop and product,"  in spite of its vital importance prior to World War II. This early cropping reduces the seed yield but improves the fiber yield and quality. The seeds are sown with grain drills or other conventional seeding equipment to a depth of 1. Greater seeding depths result in increased weed competition. Nitrogen should not be placed with the seed, but phosphate may be tolerated.
Organic fertilizers such as manure are one of the best methods of weed control. In contrast to cannabis for medical use, varieties grown for fiber and seed have less than 0. Typically, hemp contains below 0. Smallholder plots are usually harvested by hand. Mechanical harvesting is now common, using specially adapted cutter-binders or simpler cutters. The cut hemp is laid in swathes to dry for up to four days. This was traditionally followed by retting , either water retting the bundled hemp floats in water or dew retting the hemp remains on the ground and is affected by the moisture in dew, and by molds and bacterial action.
Harvesting industrial hemp Cannabis sativa - this is a separate harvest for a different form of processing: The upper part of the plant with the leaves will be collected for cold pressing, while the lower part remains for producing fiber and initially it is left on the field. For profitable hemp farming, particularly deep, humus -rich, nutrient-rich soil with controlled water flow is preferable. Waterlogged acidic, compressed or extremely light sandy soils primarily affect the early development of plants.
Hemp benefits crops grown after it. So, it is generally grown before winter cereals. Advantageous changes are high weed suppression, soil loosening by the large hemp root system, and the positive effect on soil tilth.
Since hemp is very self-compatible, it can also be grown several years in a row in the same fields monoculture. Hemp plants can be vulnerable to various pathogens , including bacteria , fungi , nematodes , viruses and other miscellaneous pathogens. Such diseases often lead to reduced fiber quality, stunted growth, and death of the plant. These diseases rarely affect the yield of a hemp field, so hemp production is not traditionally dependent on the use of pesticides. Hemp is considered by a study in Environmental Economics to be environmentally friendly due to a decrease of land use and other environmental impacts, indicating a possible decrease of ecological footprint in a US context compared to typical benchmarks.
France ranks second with about a quarter of the world production. Smaller production occurs in the rest of Europe , Chile , and North Korea. The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses ; other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics ; many traditional growing countries still continue to produce textile -grade fibre.
Air-dried stem yields in Ontario have from and onward ranged from 2. Yields in Kent County, have averaged 8. Northern Ontario crops averaged 6. Statistic for the European Union for to say that the average yield of hemp straw has varied between 6. Around one tonne of bast fiber and 2—3 tonnes of core material can be decorticated from 3—4 tonnes of good-quality, dry-retted straw. For an annual yield of this level is it in Ontario recommended to add nitrogen N: In the Australian states of Tasmania , Victoria , Queensland , New South Wales , and most recently, South Australia , the state governments have issued licences to grow hemp for industrial use.
The first to initiate modern research into the potential of cannabis was the state of Tasmania, which pioneered the licensing of hemp during the early s. The state of Victoria was an early adopter in , and has reissued the regulation in Queensland has allowed industrial production under licence since ,  where the issuance is controlled under the Drugs Misuse Act Commercial production including cultivation of industrial hemp has been permitted in Canada since under licenses and authorization issued by Health Canada 9, ha in , ha in In the early s, industrial hemp agriculture in North America began with the Hemp Awareness Committee at the University of Manitoba.
The Committee worked with the provincial government to get research and development assistance, and was able to obtain test plot permits from the Canadian government.
Their efforts led to the legalization of industrial hemp hemp with only minute amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol in Canada and the first harvest in France is Europe's biggest producer and the world's second largest producer with 8, hectares 20, acres cultivated.
The main production areas were in Ukraine ,  the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia , and near the Polish border. Since its inception in , the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv Glukhov , Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the commercial cultivation of hemp declined sharply. However, at least an estimated 2.
When grown for nondrug purposes, hemp is referred to as industrial hemp, and a common product is fibre for use in a wide variety of products, as well as the seed for nutritional aspects and for the oil. Feral hemp or ditch weed is usually a naturalized fibre or oilseed strain of Cannabis that has escaped from cultivation and is self-seeding.
Hemp was made illegal to grow without a permit in the U. All four states are waiting for permission to grow hemp from the DEA. Yet, even with this progress, hemp businesses seem to face difficulty expanding in the US as they face challenges in traditional marketing and sales approaches.
According to a case study done by Forbes , hemp businesses and startups have had difficulty marketing and selling non-psychoactive hemp products, as some online advertising platforms and financial institutions do not distinguish between hemp and marijuana. The Hemp Farming Act of , part of the Farm Bill  signed by President Donald Trump December 20, ,  changed hemp from a controlled substance to an agricultural commodity, legalizing hemp federally, which made it easier for farmers to get production licenses, get loans to grow hemp, and allowed them to get federal crop insurance.
Hemp is possibly one of the earliest plants to be cultivated. Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland Barber summarizes the historical evidence that Cannabis sativa , "grew and was known in the Neolithic period all across the northern latitudes, from Europe Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Romania, Ukraine to East Asia Tibet and China ," but, "textile use of Cannabis sativa does not surface for certain in the West until relatively late, namely the Iron Age.
The linguistic evidence strongly supports this theory, both as to time and direction of spread and as to cause. Jews living in Palestine in the 2nd century were familiar with the cultivation of hemp, as witnessed by a reference to it in the Mishna Kil'ayim 2: In late medieval Germany and Italy , hemp was employed in cooked dishes, as filling in pies and tortes , or boiled in a soup.
The use of hemp as a cloth was centered largely in the countryside, with higher quality textiles being available in the towns.
The Spaniards brought hemp to the Americas and cultivated it in Chile starting about As early as , the first Virginia House of Burgesses passed an Act requiring all planters in Virginia to sow "both English and Indian" hemp on their plantations. George Washington pushed for the growth of hemp and even grew hemp himself, as it was a cash crop commonly used to make rope and fabric. In May he noted in his diary about the sowing of seeds each day until mid-April.
Then he recounts the harvest in October which he grew 27 bushels that year. There is some speculation that George Washington smoked the flower of the cannabis plant in order to achieve a recreational high "Like all farmers, Washington probably sampled the quality and potency of what he grew, and he may have used this hemp to treat his chronic tooth aches" ,  but there is no evidence in any of his writings that he grew hemp for anything other than industrial purposes.
It is sometimes supposed that an excerpt from Washington's diary, which reads "Began to seperate [ sic ] the Male from the Female hemp at Do. However, the editorial remark accompanying the diary states that "This may arise from their [the male] being coarser, and the stalks larger"  In subsequent days, he describes soaking the hemp  to make the fibers usable and harvesting the seeds,  suggesting that he was growing hemp for industrial purposes, not recreational.
George Washington also imported the Indian Hemp plant from Asia, which was used for fiber and, by some growers, for intoxicating resin production.
In a letter to William Pearce who managed the plants for him Washington says, "What was done with the Indian Hemp plant from last summer? It ought, all of it, to be sown again; that not only a stock of seed sufficient for my own purposes might have been raised, but to have disseminated seed to others; as it is more valuable than common hemp. Historically, hemp production had made up a significant portion of antebellum Kentucky's economy.
Before the American Civil War , many slaves worked on plantations producing hemp. In , the Marihuana Tax Act of was passed in the United States, levying a tax on anyone who dealt commercially in cannabis, hemp, or marijuana.
One claim is that Hearst believed [ dubious — discuss ] that his extensive timber holdings were threatened by the invention of the decorticator which he feared would allow hemp to become a cheap substitute for the paper pulp used for newspaper.
Further, decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production. Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont 's new synthetic fiber, nylon , and believed [ dubious — discuss ] that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product's success. Joe "Daddy Burt" Burton, a recognized top Kentucky hemp farmer with harvested hemp, United States "Marihuana" production permit.
In the United States, hemp cultivation is legally prohibited , but during World War II farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for cordage, to replace Manila hemp previously obtained from Japanese -controlled areas.
CBD Oils and Hemp Oils - Legal Status
Hemp, or industrial hemp typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Australia; Canada; France; Russia and Ukraine; United When oxidized (often erroneously referred to as "drying"), hemp oil from the In the U.S., imported hemp can be used legally in food products and, as of Did you know some forms of this oil are not allowed to be sold as food or food supplements in Why are some CBD/hemp oils considered to be novel foods?. The first health food store in Limerick to stock cannabis oil products says sales have “skyrocketed” in recent months following calls for.