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The northeast African closely related species M. Moringa ruspoliana is unique in the family for its leaf morphology. Instead of having large leaves with many tiny leaflets, as does M. In our experience, one of the most time consuming aspects of the preparation of M.
Fewer, larger leaflets would reduce preparation time and make moringa much more appealing as a vegetable, as well as reducing production time and cost of moringa leaf powder. It also had a relatively high LMA. The larger leaflets of M. The LMA-protein content tradeoff therefore might present an impediment to developing Moringa variants with larger and fewer leaflets.
The close relatives M. Moringa borziana was distinguished only by falling in statistical groupings with high levels of calcium and copper, and M. Moringa oleifera is closely related to two species, M. As the closest living relative to M. The other close relative of M.
It did however fall in groupings with high levels of iron, manganese, and sodium. These low protein levels again likely reflect the LMA-protein tradeoff. Moringa peregrina is unique in that at maturity, the leaves generally drop all or most of their leaflets, leaving naked leaf rachises.
Even when present, M. Interestingly, the leaf rachis of M. Given these nutrient contents in the rachis, Moringa peregrina may still be of interest as forage, as well as for its very high seed oil content, but given its tiny, fugacious leaflets it would not seem an attractive prospect for the development of varieties for leaf vegetables. Our results thus provide some indication of which species are most and least promising in Moringa breeding, and also suggest which traits are likely to respond independently of others under selection.
The marked associations between traits Fig 3 , Table 3 suggest that selection on some features will inevitably result in concomitant changes in others Table 4. Selection on, for example, protein levels, will probably alter levels of macro- and micro- nutrients.
Calcium, magnesium, and sodium levels, which strongly and positively covaried with one another, covaried to an extent negatively with almost all the remaining nutrients.
As a result, selection enhancing protein levels will almost certainly lower calcium levels and vice versa. Fortunately, the levels of calcium in M. In summary, our results help outline expectations regarding the potential usefulness of the various species as leaf vegetables, as well as which nutrients can likely be maximized independently of others and which will inevitably covary.
Numerous unknowns remain regarding nutritional attributes across Moringa. Therefore, determining such basic information regarding species of potential interest such as M.
The only species known to be eaten as leaf vegetables by local people are M. The other species are all used locally in their native ranges but as medicine, not food. Moreover, even if a species is edible, very little is known regarding nutrient bioavailability in Moringa.
Protein is a clear priority in this regard, given that most methods examine total N rather than bioavailable protein. Calcium is another example. This is potentially important because the calcium in oxalates is not available as a dietary calcium source, and because consumption of high levels of soluble oxalates can contribute to kidney stones [ 63 , 64 ]. This percentage could seem dismayingly high but the authors found only non-soluble oxalates, which are excreted and thus do not contribute to calculi.
Thus, determining the relationship between palatability and nutrition concentrations across Moringa is clearly a priority. Studies involving higher sample sizes across intraspecific genetic diversity and across different growing conditions are also obvious priorities. Live material for study of most species is extremely hard to come by, and indeed some of the plants in the germplasm collection studied here are the only or are among the very few individuals of their species known in cultivation.
The wide range of Moringa , across the dry tropics of Africa, Asia, and Madagascar, makes comprehensively surveying the genetic diversity of each species a challenge, as does the remoteness of many of the ranges of the species. There does seem hope for studies with higher sample sizes in the medium to short term, given that in our germplasm collection plants that are currently too small to sample are being continually incorporated into outdoor plantings as they become larger and reach sampling size.
Even with these considerations in mind, our results are entirely sufficient to show that the variation across Moringa far exceeds that within the currently used species. Moreover, our results help identify species of particular interest, guide expectations regarding which nutrients should covary under selection, and map clear priorities for further work.
We thank three anonymous reviewers for their comments, which greatly improved the paper. Trees for Life www. Trees for Life is a humanitarian NGO that uses moringa as a crucial low cost nutritional resource in poor dry tropical communities worldwide. They provided the authors with the mandate to learn about moringa protein to guide selection of the optimal variants for addressing protein malnutrition.
The Lewis and Dorothy Cullman Foundation http: These funds helped make BCA measurements of protein possible. Funding was also provided by the Agricultural Research Service Except for that mentioned for Trees for Life, the funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jul Olson , 1 Renuka P.
Fahey , 4 Michael A. Grusak , 5 David Odee , 6 and Wasif Nouman 7. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Mar 25; Accepted Jul 6. This is an open access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Moringa species and samples, authorities, and provenance data. Leaf nutrient and protein levels, and mass per area. Abstract The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Introduction Protein-energy malnutrition and mineral element deficiencies affect as many as 1 out of 3 people, mostly children in poor countries [ 1 — 3 ], with plant foods being key tools in addressing this situation.
Materials and Methods Plant material and growth conditions Plants were cultivated in a common garden at the International Moringa Germplasm Collection www. Mineral analyses Upon transfer to the laboratory, leaflets were separated and the rachises discarded, because it is the leaflets that are usually consumed by people.
Protein Total protein was measured using the Dumas method in which organic matter is combusted at high temperature and the nitrogen released is trapped and measured as a proxy for protein content [ 50 ].
Statistical Analyses We calculated medians per sample, and then medians per species based on them, and used these medians per species for each variable for all analyses.
Open in a separate window. Boxplots and homogeneous groups for protein and macronutrients across Moringa species. Boxplots and homogeneous groups for micronutrients. Table 2 Kruskal-Wallis tests on the 14 nutrients examined. Protein Total and soluble protein levels were broadly similar, reflected in the median protein values in Fig 1A—1C. Macronutrients High macronutrient variation within species translated again into high statistical overlap in homogeneous groups Fig 1D—1H.
Micronutrients A situation of wide variation and marked overlap across species was also observed for micronutrients. Relationships between variables These relationships were manifest in multiple close statistical associations between mineral concentrations and protein content Table 3.
Plot of the first two principal components of the PCA of Moringa protein, macro- and micro- nutrient variation across species. Table 3 Pearson correlation matrix between nutrients plus LMA.
Table 4 First three principal components from the PCA and variance explained by each, with nutrients with high loadings in each component shown in bold. Discussion The nutritional attractiveness of M. Protein and LMA Moringa is of fundamental interest for tropical malnutrition reduction strategies because of its leaf protein content, and our results help identify the species with the highest and lowest protein levels. Macro- and micro- nutrients The most widely-cultivated species, M.
Further Research Numerous unknowns remain regarding nutritional attributes across Moringa. Supporting Information S1 Table Moringa species and samples, authorities, and provenance data. DOCX Click here for additional data file. S2 Table Leaf nutrient and protein levels, and mass per area. XLS Click here for additional data file. Funding Statement Trees for Life www. Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. The worldwide magnitude of protein-energy malnutrition: State of the World.
World poverty and food insecurity. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Maternal and child undernutrition: The state of food insecurity in the world Food and Agriculture Organization; Moringa oleifera Natural nutrition for the tropics.
Church World Service; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Flora of North America Association; Introduction to the Moringa Family In: The multiple attributes of moringa. Palada M, Chang L. World Vegetable Center; Muhamadu I, Mahamadou O, et al. Analysis of nutritional components of eight famine foods of the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. Makkar H, Becker K.
Nutritive value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves. Anim Feed Sci Technol. Nutrient content of the edible leaves of seven wild plants from Niger. Nutritional and clinical rehabilitation of severely malnourished children with Moringa oleifera Lam. Intergeneric relationships within the Caricaceae-Moringacecae clade Brassicales , and potential morphological synapomorphies of the clade and its families.
Int J Plant Sci. Profiling glucosinolates and phenolics in vegetative and reproductive tissues of the multi-purpose trees Moringa oleifera L.
J Agric Food Chem. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate- enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera. Siddharaju P, Becker K. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree Moringa oleifera Lam.
Characterization of Moringa oleifera variety mbololo seed oil of Kenya. Anwar F, Bhanger M. Analytical characteriztion of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan. Folkard G, Sutherland J. Development of a naturally derived coagulant for water and wastewater treatment. Water Supply ; 2: Substituting sunflower seed-cake with Moringa oleifera leaves as a supplemental goat feed in Tanzania.
Coagulation—flocculation process with ultrafiltered saline extract of Moringa oleifera for the treatment of surface water. The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses In Fuglie L, editor. The multiple attributes of Moringa. Nutrient contents and antinutritional factors in conventional and non-conventional leafy vegetables. Nutritional assessment of moringa Moringa spp.
African natural plant products: New discoveries and challenges in chemistry and quality. American Chemical Society; Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a substitute for sunflower seed meal on performance of laying hens in Tanzania.
Livestock Res Rural Develop. Nutrients and antiquality factors in different morphological parts of the Moringa oleifera tree. Nutritional quality of edible parts of Moringa oleifera.
Food Anal Meth ; 3: Effect of moringa Moringa oleifera inclusion in cassava based diets fed to broiler chickens. Int J Poult Sci. Effect of different parts leaf, stem and stalk and seasons summer and winter on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera. Int J Mol Sci. Feeding value of whole and extracted Moringa oleifera leaves for ruminants and their effects on ruminal fermentation in vitro. Determination of chemical composition and nutritional values of Moringa oleifera leaves.
The nutrient content of Moringa oleifera leaves. Educational Concern for Hunger Organization; Ecotype variability in growth and secondary metabolite profile in Moringa oleifera: A compositional study of Moringa stenopetala leaves.
E African Med J. Engels J, Goettsch E. Konso agriculture and its plant genetic resources In: Plant genetic resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press; Pharmacognostical and phytochemical investigations of Moringa concanensis Moringaceae an ethno medicine of Nilgiris.
Syst Bot ; Stem and root anatomy of Moringa Moringaceae. A tree extinct in the wild but preserved by indigenous horticultural practices in Madagascar. Climate of Chamela, Jalisco, and trends in the south coastal region of Mexico. Arch Meteor Geophy B. Phenology of canopy trees of a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico.
Historia natural de Chamela. Mineral concentration of broccoli florets in relation to year of cultivar release. Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid. The leaves in this state will be re-fired throughout the year as they are needed, giving the green teas a longer shelf-life and better flavor.
The first flush tea of May will readily store in this fashion until the next year's harvest. After this re-drying process, each crude tea will be sifted and graded according to size. Finally, each lot will be blended according to the blending order by the tasters and packed for sale. On 17 June , at Charles de Gaulle airport in Paris, France, radioactive cesium of 1, becquerels per kilogram was measured in tea leaves imported from Shizuoka Prefecture , Japan as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on 11 March, which was more than twice the restricted amount in the European Union of becquerels per kilogram.
In response, the governor of Shizuoka Prefecture, Heita Kawakatsu , stated: In , the US Food and Drug Administration updated its import status on Japanese products deemed to be contaminated by radionuclides, indicating that tea from the Ibaraki prefecture had been removed from the list by the Government of Japan in Loose leaf green tea has been the most popular form of tea in China since at least the Southern Song dynasty.
Tea seeds were first brought to Japan in the early 9th century by the Buddhist monks Saicho and Kukai. During the Heian period — , Emperor Saga introduced the practice of drinking tea to the imperial family. The Zen Buddhist priest Eisai — , founder of the Rinzai school of Buddhism, brought tea seeds from China to plant in various places in Japan. Eisai advocated that all people, not just Buddhist monks and the elite, drink tea for its health benefits.
The oldest tea-producing region in Japan is Uji , located near the former capital of Kyoto. All commercial tea produced in Japan today is green tea,  though for a brief period black tea was also produced in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Japanese tea production is heavily mechanized, and is characterized by the use of modern technology and processes to improve yields and reduce labor. Because of the high cost of labor in Japan, only the highest quality teas are plucked and processed by hand in the traditional fashion.
Japanese green teas have a thin, needle-like shape and a rich, dark green color. Unlike Chinese teas, most Japanese teas are produced by steaming rather than pan firing. This produces their characteristic color, and creates a sweeter, more grassy flavor.
Most Japanese teas are blended from leaves grown in different regions, with less emphasis on terroir than in the Chinese market. Because of the limited quantity of tea that can be produced in Japan, the majority of production is dedicated to the premium tea market.
Bottled tea and tea-flavored food products usually use lower-grade Japanese-style tea produced in China. Although a variety of commercial tea cultivars exist in Japan, the vast majority of Japanese tea is produced using the Yabukita cultivar developed in the s.
According to Record of Gaya cited in Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms , the legendary queen Heo Hwang-ok , a princess of the Ayodhya married to King Suro of Gaya , brought the tea plant from India and planted it in Baegwolsan , a mountain in current Changwon. The annual consumption per capita of green tea in South Korea in was 0. Korean green tea can be classified into various types based on several different factors.
The most common is the flush, or the time of the year when the leaves are plucked and thus also by leaf size. It is one of the foods for which a standard of identity is specified according to the Food and Drug Regulations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a type of tea.
For other things, see Green Tea disambiguation. The appearance of green tea in three different stages from left to right: Health effects of tea.
Longjing , a green tea from Zhejiang , China. History of tea in Japan. Tea field in Boseong , South Korea. Traditional Korean tea and Korean tea ceremony. This section needs expansion.
You can help by adding to it. Chinese tea culture Japanese tea ceremony Korean tea List of ineffective cancer treatments List of Chinese teas Potential effects of tea on health Sinecatechins White tea Yellow tea. Current Pharmaceutical Design Literature Review. Retrieved 12 August The Book of Green Tea. Williamson, Phytochemical functional foods, Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing, , pp.
C National Academies Press, , p. European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 9 November National Institutes of Health. Green tea extract and, more rarely, ingestion of large amounts of green tea have been implicated in cases of clinically apparent acute liver injury, including instances of acute liver failure and either need for urgent liver transplantation or death. Annals of Internal Medicine.
Bascom, Incorporating herbal medicine into clinical practice, Philadelphia: Davis Company, , p. Cochrane Database Syst Rev Systematic review 3: In conclusion, whilst there is a considerable body of evidence for green tea with some of it suggesting a positive effect, it is difficult to be definitive as to its health benefits.
Br J Nutr Meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol Review. Cancer Biol Med Review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Review. Br J Nutr Meta-Analysis. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Cochrane Database Syst Rev Systematic review.
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