In large part, it's because they have very different THC-to-CBD ratios. CBD is best known for having a wide range of medical uses. This is why the THC:CBD ratio strongly influences a strain's effects, and why that ratio is important when The plants are really making either THCA or CBDA out of CBGA (Figure 1). It's only. THC vs. CBD at the CB1 receptor Figure 1: The psychoactive effects of cannabis Nonetheless, the THC:CBD ratio is a huge factor in how a strain will affect you. to differ from THC-dominant strains based solely on their THC:CBD ratios. Second, CBD can exert direct anti-anxiety effects through its influence on other. What do CBD to THC ratios mean and what can they really do? This post is part of our High-tech High series, which explores weed innovations, Most marijuana strains have around 18 percent THC with less than 1 percent CBD ( with less of it and CBD generally combats THC's psychoactive effects.
THC:CBD EffectsPart to Ratios Ratio to 1, Using Influence Strain Predict CBD How the Genetics THC
Related article at Pubmed , Scholar Google. Cannabis has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for millennia. From a taxonomic perspective scientists have been debating the presence of multiple species for quite some time.
Some scientist delineates 3 species, C. It is commonly accepted in cannabis culture to make the distinction between sativa and indica strains [ 5 ]. Indica plants are said to be short, densely branched and have wider leaves and are claimed to be sedative and good for pain relief.
Sativa plants are tall, loosely branched and have long, narrow leaves. Sativa is claimed to be uplifting, stimulating and recommended for daytime use. This is the typical information a patient or recreational user will hear when they visit a medicinal cannabis dispensary or recreational store. However, we only found one published study that compared indica and sativa strains in patients [ 6 ].
This study showed that cannabis was uniformly effective in relieving symptoms across a wide range of diagnostic categories. Indica strains appeared superior to sativa strains in improving energy and appetite.
No statistical difference between sativa and indica was found for pain, mood, nausea, muscle spasms, seizures, ocular issues, insomnia, awareness or neuropathy. Strains were assigned based upon morphology. This study was not blinded and the observed differences could be a result of expectations by the patient.
If sativa and indica truly have different physiological effects upon consumption, some compound or interaction of compounds need to be responsible for this.
In this paper we use PCA to investigate the analytical results for cannabinoids and terpenes in cannabis flower samples and cannabis concentrates. This analysis was performed in an attempt to investigate the potential existence of distinct cannabis chemotypes that could explain the different effects people experience from specific cannabis strains. Cannabinoids and terpenes were chosen as chemotype markers as they are considered to be the main physiologically active constituents in cannabis.
Researchers have looked at cannabis from a chemotaxonomic perspective as well. Small and Beckstead split C. DeMeijer et al showed that this could be explained genetically by a model involving one locus, with two alleles. The alleles where shown to be co-dominant [ 9 ]. Various authors have tried using the secondary metabolites in combination with PCA for forensic investigation of the geographical origin of the plant material [ 11 - 13 ].
Although they managed to differentiate samples from different countries the success of this approach was limited as not only geographical location but many other cultivation variables influenced the chemical composition of the flowers. Much of the cannabis available in the western world is grown indoors often with strict control of variables.
The use of controlled lighting cycles, specialized soil, fine-tuned nutrients and pest control eliminate many of the environmental variables and will make geographical assigning of the plant difficult if not impossible. Fischedick et al analyzed 11 cultivars of cannabis for 36 compounds and managed to discriminate the various cultivars with PCA [ 14 ].
The authors of this paper showed that it is possible to grow cannabis with reproducible terpene and cannabinoid levels over different batches as long as environmental conditions and genetics are standardized. Alterations in grow cycle time, plant stress and different genotype can cause considerable differences in the chemical profile. A study by Casano et al investigated the variability of terpene profiles in 16 plants from different strains of C.
The study showed a large variation of relative content of terpenes between strains and suggests that terpene variation can be used as a tool for characterization of cannabis bio types. To our knowledge this is the first paper reporting chemo typical differences using samples that are available to patients in the chemotypical medicinal cannabis dispensaries.
Most of the previous papers use samples collected worldwide and based upon their reported cannabinoid levels, are not representative of the cannabis currently available in the United States to patients and recreational users. It is important to note that doctors often specifically recommend an indica or sativa strain to their patient, but that the scientific literature is lacking evidence to support these recommendations. In this paper we will take a PCA approach to investigate the variation between strains in the California medicinal marijuana market and also specifically look at the differences in composition between indica and sativa strains.
Methanol and water of analytical grade as well as terpene reference standards were purchased from Sigma Aldrich, St. The samples used for this study have been submitted for analysis to our laboratory by California medicinal marijuana patients in the period from the beginning of to the end of The strain names for the samples were the names reported by the submitter at the time of submission. Strains where classified as indica, sativa, hybrid or unknown based upon the assignment by the cannabis strain database website Leafly.
For concentrates, the whole data set was used and divided into three categories high, medium, low CBD. All data was modulated to express the various compounds as the contribution to the sum of compounds. PCA analysis was performed in excel using a macro written by Tsugawa et al. The acidic analytical method as published by Hazekamp et al. Terpene content was determined using GC-FID according to the same approach as Fischedick et al using retention time comparison with authentic reference, mass spectra, and literature data [ 14 ].
Table 1 lists the terpenes that were analyzed in each sample. The dataset contained samples. At least 8 different samples were present for each uniquely identifiable strain.
A total of 35 different strains where present in the dataset. Table 2 shows the number of replicates for each strain and the average, minimum and maximum THCmax concentration found in the samples. It can be noticed that the THCmax levels can vary widely even within one strain. In 14 out of 35 strains the difference between the minimum and maximum level found differed by more than a factor of 2 and in the highest case OG Kush by more than a factor of 5.
This indicates that it will be exceptionally hard to predict the potency of a flower product based solely upon the strain name.
Table 2 also shows the assignment to sativa, indica, hybrid or unknown. Thirteen 13 strains were assigned as indica, 5 where assigned as sativa and 14 as hybrid. Three 3 strains did not occur in the Leafly database that was used for the assignment. The first peak is at 4. The second peak is at Information regarding cultivation condition was not present, but it is speculated that these two peaks represent the averages for outdoor and indoor cultivation methods.
The Figure 2 shows that out of samples had less than 1. The graph can be found in supplementary information Figure 1. This difference can be explained by the large variety of strains used in this study where the study by Fischedick was performed with a limited amount of strains grown and stored under standardized conditions. For statistical analysis all data was expressed as a contribution to the sum of all compounds.
This modulation of the data was performed as it is our experience the relative ratios of terpenes in a strain are more reproducible than the absolute concentration for a strain. Supplementary information Figure 2 shows the effect of this conversion for the 8 main terpenes in 10 different Velvet Kush samples. Absolute data shows more variation than the standardized data. This effect is likely a result of trichome density [ 19 ]. Part of the plant exposed to more light will have a higher density of trichomes.
Also, during trimming of the dried female flowers more or less leafy material can be left behind influencing the absolute concentration as the trichomes are the cannabinoid and terpene producing parts of the plant. Kush is a reference to strains originating from the Hindu Kush region in Central Asia. To investigate if this term has any relationship based on the chemical composition of the plant matter, PCA analysis was performed comparing OG with Kush type strains.
Eleven 11 strains were assigned to the OG group and 5 strains were assigned to the Kush group. The full data set was analyzed without scaling and the scoring and loading plot can be found in Figures 3 and 4. Examination of the loading plot reveals cannabinoids are responsible for the differentiation of the samples.
This is expected as the absolute concentration and variation of cannabinoids is much higher than that of the terpenes, therefore without scaling, the cannabinoids will dominate. A grouping of Harlequin red , can be noticed. The loading plot indicates that these strains are differentiated due to a high CBDmax content. The original data showed that Harlequin is indeed a high CBD strain and fairly unique in this aspect. One OG Kush sample purple was mixed in with the Harlequin group and inspection revealed that this indeed was also a high CBD sample which was not characteristic of other OG Kush samples.
The same data set was analyzed with scaling. The scoring and loading plot can be found in Figures 5 and 6. And these products aren't cheap. CBD oil made from hemp, which has less than 0.
Cinnamon Bidwell, a neurobiologist at the University of Colorado Boulder's Institute of Cognitive Science, cautions not to get swept up in the testimonials promoted by cannabis manufacturers. That seems to be the case for marijuana in general since its classification as a so-called Schedule 1 drug — which means the federal government believes it has "no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse" — makes it difficult to study. Bidwell's lab, which is in a state that has legalized recreational marijuana, is conducting a 5-year study comparing the cannabinoids subjects ingest to what shows up in their bloodstreams in relation to clinical outcomes.
What's more, all the ratios can be hard to understand. Care by Design offers five Here's a rule of thumb: When you're deciding which ratio is right for you, it'll take some experimenting. Both Hunter and Conner suggest starting with a high-level of CBD and working your way down to a more balanced product.
You'll have to play around with the amount, too, but take it slow. Care by Design sells a sampler pack to help in the guessing game.
The ends of the spectrum, The trial and error, Bidwell said, is what happens when cannabis products rush into the market before there's sufficient research. Confessions of a cautious concentrate newbie. There is, however, a prescription 1: It's undergoing clinical trials in the U. It's used to treat seizures. And in terms of these different ratios, there's an idea or a hypothesis that there's something there in terms of THC facilitating CBD's action in a different way, if not more in different amounts.
But in terms of the science being able to contribute to that in any kind of clear way, we're not there yet," Bidwell said. Marijuana isn't legal in Tennessee, but hemp is. Most CBD products are made from hemp extract, while the ratio products tend to include a variety of cannabis strains to get the right proportion.
It's clear to Altman, who does not study THC, that CBD provides relief for those with inflammatory or autoimmune conditions, but if you're looking for pain relief, that's going to come from THC. Altman's lab works with private groups looking to sell CBD from hemp as a nutritional supplement. His take on these emerging products is pretty simple: The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine put out a report surveying the scientific research done so far on the health impacts of cannabis.
There is conclusive or substantial evidence that cannabis is effective in treating cancer patients with nausea, adults with chronic pain, and MS patients with spasms, according to the report.
Chemometric Analysis of Cannabinoids: Chemotaxonomy and Domestication Syndrome
Graphic illustration of 3 different Cannabis Leaves with varying amounts sativa and cannabis indica, each with its own characteristics and effects. . In fact, cannabinoids are one part of what makes cannabis medicine. Both indica and sativa cannabis strains contain THC, CBD and other cannabinoids. ], which was followed by the cloning of cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) [ Matsuda et . The most researched compounds of the plant are dTHC and CBD and . 'stoned' effect, users prefer the strains of the plant with higher THC content. .. Cannabidiol affects the expression of genes involved in zinc homeostasis in. The impact of domestication is a lack of chemical diversity and loss of biodiversity In addition, large genetic variance has been observed within identically named strains,. . There are two high THC strains (CAN17 and CAN21) and one CBD strain (CAN34) for predicting THCA content with validation r2 values improving from and.