So, what exactly is the difference between Cannabis, Hemp and Marijuana? Cannabis is a family of plants with two primary classifications — Indica Because Hemp and Marijuana both derive from the Cannabis Sativa family, they do To the untrained eye, hemp and marijuana can appear similar, but if. Because THC and CBD have different molecular structures, they do not it does not legalize CBD derived from marijuana, and it does not. Finally, all your curiosities about cannabinoids answered Sure, we know what CBD and THC can do. We know that they are insanely.
and CBD From the Exactly Cannabis THC Plant? Do Come in Where
Both of these substances interact with the cannabinoid receptors found in the human body and brain, but they differed dramatically in their effects. CBD is non-psychoactive which means that it will not get the user high. THC is the main psychoactive component of the cannabis plant. This compound works, in part, by mimicking the effects of anandamide and 2-AG.
These neurotransmitters are produced naturally by the human body and help to modulate sleeping and eating habits, the perception of pain, and countless other bodily functions. Research studies indicate that THC may useful in helping with: Cannabidiol is one of the most critical cannabinoids contained in the cannabis plant.
It exists both in agricultural hemp, as well as medical cannabis. While cannabinoids are present within several plants in nature, cannabis is the only plant known to contain CBD. This fact means that when you ingest CBD for medical purposes, you will more likely experience a relief of your unwanted discomfort, with little or no noticeable effect on your cognitive abilities. Research studies indicate that CBD may be useful in helping with: Research suggests CBD may be better for inflammation and neuropathic pain , while THC may excel with spasticity and cramp-related pain.
It is worth noting that sometimes high doses of THC can exacerbate pain symptoms. Meaning THC consumed in this capacity should be done in small amounts.
Additionally, many individuals experience difficulty managing the side effects associated with THC, rendering useless any potential benefits. Some experts suggest that a combination of THC and CBD is the ideal way to approach pain, giving validity to something known as the entourage effect. For example, mg of isolated CBD may be substantially less effective at alleviating symptoms than mgs of a whole-plant, CBD-containing cannabis extract.
Many argue that consuming the plant in its whole form provides all the necessary cofactors to facilitate proper absorption. This argument is at the heart of the debate over CBD oil from hemp vs. CBD oil from cannabis. In commercially-produced medical cannabis oils, the concentrations of CBD and THC tend to be well-controlled, which makes it easy to calculate doses.
CBD is an anticonvulsant, and some other compounds in the plant, including THC and cannabidivarin, may be too. There is good evidence from clinical trials in the US and Europe that pharmaceutical preparations of CBD can treat two severe forms of childhood epilepsy known as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Both forms of epilepsy often fail to improve with existing epilepsy drugs. CBD is generally considered safe, but some trials have reported side effects including dry mouth, lightheadedness and altered liver enzyme activity.
Four drugs based on cannabis compounds are already on the market in Europe. Among them are Nabilone, a synthetic compound that mimics THC, is prescribed for nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, and Sativex, an oil that contains equal parts THC and CBD, is used to treat muscle spasms in multiple sclerosis.
They are then rapidly removed from the extracellular space by cannabinoid transporters, often referred to as anandamide membrane transporters, which facilitate their breakdown by internalizing the molecule and allowing access to fatty acid amide hydrolase [ Pertwee, ]. Despite its significance in the endocannabinoid system, little is known about the cannabinoid transporters. When cannabis is used, dTHC as a partial agonist binds to CB1R and acts in a less selective manner in inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters normally modulated by endocannabinoids such as AEA and 2-AG.
It has been putatively suggested that it may also increase the release of dopamine, glutamate and acetylcholine in certain brain regions, possibly by inhibiting the release of an inhibitory neurotransmitter like GABA onto dopamine, glutamate or acetylcholine-releasing neurons [ Bhattacharyya et al. Endocannabinoids are removed from the extracellular space by cannabinoid transporters. However, the functionalities of the CB1Rs are not always straightforward due to complex interactions with the other neurotransmitter systems.
GPCRs sense an external molecule outside the nerve cell and by contact with the molecule can signal transduction pathways, which ultimately lead to cellular responses. External ligands such as dTHC, various synthetic compounds and endocannabinoids such as anandamide can activate these receptors [ Pertwee et al.
Interestingly some alkylamides from the Echinacea plant can also bind to the CB2Rs even more strongly than the endogenous cannabinoids [ Raduner et al. Normally GPCRs are linked together to form a receptor complex. However, the signalling effects can be complex due to CB1Rs forming heteromers, which can be defined as having different parts such as subunits, with two or more other GPCRs, particularly if they are densely expressed in the same neuron.
For instance, a CB1R can form a heteromer with dopamine D2 receptor, or in another instance it can also form a heteromer with two other receptors such as dopamine D2 and adenosine A2A [ Navarro et al. Interestingly, as a result, ligand bindings can produce unexpected pharmacological effects. For instance, in a heteromer complex, not only the antagonist of CB1R but also the other receptor antagonist can block the inhibitory effect of CB1R agonist.
This has been demonstrated by Marcellino and colleagues when the CB1R antagonist rimonabant and the specific A2AR antagonist MSX-3 blocked the inhibitory effect of CB1 agonist on D2-like receptor agonist induced hyperlocomotion in rats [ Marcellino et al.
Receptor heteromers provide better understanding of how these different neurotransmitter systems interact with each other. The authors propose that it is likely that functional CB1—A2A—D2 receptor heteromers can be found in the dendritic spines of GABAergic enkephalinergic neurons, where they are highly coexpressed, and their analysis provides new information on the role of endocannabinoids in striatal function, which can be considered as retrograde signals that inhibit neurotransmitter release.
Further evidence for the existence of D2 and CB1Rs in ventral striatum is provided by electron microscopy analysis, which confirms the relevance to the rewarding and euphoric, as well as motor effects produced by cannabis, by enhancing dopamine levels particularly in the nucleus accumbens [ Pickel et al.
The authors point out that there is a bidirectional cross antagonism which involves the antagonists of either receptor to block the other. In more recent years, three other novel receptor candidates, GPR18, GPR19 and GPR55, have been discovered, as well as non-CB1Rs and non-CB2Rs, but knowledge on these systems is incomplete and the discussion on whether or not they meet the criteria to qualify as receptors or channels is ongoing [ Mackie and Stella, ; Pertwee et al.
The involvement of the particular neural regions and the neurotransmitter systems here is significant due to the fact that the very same brain areas and neurotransmitter systems are also implicated in psychoses, particularly in schizophrenia [ van Os and Kapur, ; Smieskova et al. Available evidence indicates that we do not yet have a complete understanding of the varied functions of the endocannabinoid system, which is widely distributed both in the brain and in the peripheral system and most glands and organs in the body.
Even though our knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system is still evolving, the available evidence indicates that this system has multiple regulatory roles in neuronal, vascular, metabolic, immune and reproductory systems. As mentioned previously, the on-demand regulatory role on other neurotransmitter systems clearly affect functions such as cognition, memory, motor movements and pain perception [ Howlett et al.
The cannabis plant has two main subspecies, Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa , and they can be differentiated by their different physical characteristics. Indica -dominant strains are short plants with broad, dark green leaves and have higher cannabidiol content than the sativa plants in which THC content is higher.
Sativa- dominant strains are usually taller and have thin leaves with a pale green colour. Due to its higher THC content, C. It is a complex plant with about chemical entities, of which more than 60 are cannabinoid compounds [ Dewey, ].
In the plant, cannabinoids are synthesized and accumulated as cannabinoid acids, but when the herbal product is dried, stored and heated, the acids decarboxylize gradually into their proper forms, such as CBD or dTHC [ De Meijer et al. Originally it was thought that CBD was the metabolic parent to dTHC, but it was later found that its biosynthesis occurs according to a genetically determined ratio [ Russo and Guy, ]. Even though the chemical structures of all four compounds are similar, their pharmacological effects can be very different.
The most researched compounds of the plant are dTHC and CBD and therefore we will mainly focus on these two compounds and their differences. Natural compounds of the cannabis plant are also referred to as phytocannabinoids of which dTHC is the main psychoactive ingredient and has been widely researched both in animals and humans.
It characteristically produces, in a dose-dependent manner, hypoactivity, hypothermia, spatial and verbal short-term memory impairment [Hayakawa et al. However, the second major compound, CBD, does not affect locomotor activity, body temperature or memory on its own.
The available research indicates that the main two compounds, dTHC and CBD, whilst having similar effects in certain domains, also have almost opposite effects to one another in other aspects [ Carlini et al. Table 1 summarizes the varying effects of these two compounds. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, adapted and updated from Russo and Guy . In fact the different and opposing effects of the main two compounds of the plant were noticed in some early studies.
In a double-blind study with 40 healthy volunteers, Karniol and colleagues orally administered dTHC and CBD and the mixtures of the two together, whilst pulse rate, time production tasks and psychological reactions were measured [ Karniol et al. Whilst dTHC alone increased pulse rate, disturbed time tasks and induced strong psychological reactions in the subjects, CBD alone provoked no such effects.
CBD also decreased the anxiety component of dTHC effects in such a way that the subjects reported more pleasurable effects. Most recently there have been a number of drug challenge studies with sound methodologies examining the effects of both of these compounds. Our group carried out a number of double-blind, pseudo-randomized studies on healthy volunteers who had previous minimal exposure to cannabis.
All participants were administered 10 mg of dTHC, mg of CBD and placebo flour in three different functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions while performing a response inhibition task, a verbal memory task, an emotional task viewing fearful faces and an auditory and visual sensory processing task. The overall concluding results showed that dTHC and CBD had different behavioural effects and also, at times, opposing brain activation in various regions [ Borgwardt et al.
DTHC caused transient psychotic symptoms and increased the levels of anxiety, intoxication and sedation, whilst CBD had no significant effect on behaviour or these parameters.
In relation to the imaging data, during the response inhibition task, relative to placebo, dTHC attenuated the engagement of brain regions that normally mediate response inhibition, whilst CBD modulated activity in regions not implicated with this task [ Borgwardt et al.
During the verbal learning and retrieval of word pair tasks, dTHC modulated activity in mediotemporal and ventrostriatal regions, whilst CBD had no such effect [ Bhattacharyya et al. During an emotional processing task dTHC and CBD had clearly distinct effects on the neural, electrodermal and symptomatic response to fearful faces [ Fusar-Poli et al. Our results suggest that the effects of CBD on activation in limbic and paralimbic regions may contribute to its ability to reduce autonomic arousal and subjective anxiety, whereas the anxiogenic effects of dTHC may be related to effects in other brain regions.
During the auditory task, again these two compounds had opposite effects in the superior temporal cortex when subjects listened to speech and in the occipital cortex during visual processing [ Winton-Brown et al. Our group also assessed whether pretreatment with CBD could prevent the acute psychotic symptoms induced by dTHC when six healthy volunteers were administered dTHC intravenously on two occasions, after placebo or CBD pretreatment [ Bhattacharyya et al.
Both animal and human studies indicate that CBD has anxiolytic properties. In fact in a recent double-blind study carried out on patients with generalized social anxiety disorder, it was found that relative to placebo, CBD significantly reduced subjective anxiety and its effect was related to its activity on limbic and paralimbic areas as shown by single photon emission computed tomography [ Crippa et al.
CBD has also been proposed to have antipsychotic effects and is considered a potential antipsychotic medicine, particularly due its relatively low side-effect profile [ Zuardi et al. Another interesting compound of the plant, dtetrahydrocannabivarin dTHCV , a novel CB1R antagonist, also exerts potentially useful actions in the treatment of epilepsy and obesity [ Pertwee, ; Izzo et al.
A review of this compound, along with dTHC and CBD by Pertwee suggests that plant extractions of d - 9-THCV produces its antiobesity effects more by increasing energy expenditure than by reducing food intake [ Pertwee, ]. The author also points out that a medicine such as dTHCV, by simultaneously blocking CB1Rs and activating CB2Rs, may have potential for the management of disorders such as chronic liver disease and obesity, particularly when these are associated with inflammation.
However, the CBD content was found to be extremely low in more recent times. More recently, a meta-analysis to assess the potency of cannabis from to was carried out. From 21 case series covering a number of countries, a recent and consistent worldwide increase in cannabis potency was reported [ Cascini et al.
These findings suggest that current trends for preferring higher THC content variants carry significant health risks, particularly to those who are susceptible to its harmful effects.
Indeed, Morgan and colleagues carried out a study on current users, which included 66 daily and 54 recreational users, whose hair analyses revealed their THC and CBD amounts. The study found that higher THC levels in hair in daily users were associated with increased depression and anxiety, as well as poorer prose recall and source memory [ Morgan et al.
However, higher CBD in hair was associated with lower psychosis-like symptoms and better recognition memory. In relation to people with psychosis, health risks are even higher with stronger variants of the plant. In a recent study of people with a first episode of psychosis, it was found that patients used higher-potency cannabis for longer durations and greater frequency compared with a healthy control group [ Di Forti et al.
As the stronger variants have been taking over the street market, there has been a surge of interest in studying the links between cannabis use and mental health problems. The first to draw attention to such a link was a number of epidemiological studies and reviews, which pointed towards an association between the use of cannabis and the increased risk of developing a psychotic illness, in a dose-dependent manner [ Zammit et al.
A psychotic outcome is not the only diagnostic category which has been associated with cannabis use. Symptoms of depression and anxiety commonly coexist with cannabis use and lead to diagnostic dilemmas [ Nunes et al.
Cannabis, a complex plant: different compounds and different effects on individuals
It is the distinction between CBD derived from marijuana and CBD from hemp These plants do not contain enough THC to get anyone high. CBD is found primarily in extractions from the hemp plant. It's sold in gels, CBD does not need to be made from marijuana and is legal when made from hemp. Hemp CBD oil might be different from cannabis CBD oil, but it's hemp oil is pressed and extracted from the plant seeds (which you can.