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Look What Like? Does a Cannabis User Typical

fabregasesp
26.01.2019

Content:

  • Look What Like? Does a Cannabis User Typical
  • Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know
  • TREATMENT EFFICACY RESEARCH
  • So what does the typical, recreational marijuana user look like today? And how do the preferences and spending habits of groups like young. Although there are effects that users describe that are common to the While marijuana does not typically produce real hallucinations the way. Here are some signs and symptoms of marijuana use and what you can do to help Worldwide, cannabis–also known as weed and marijuana–throws an Feeling that one's life is just passing one by is a typical symptom of weed use.

    Look What Like? Does a Cannabis User Typical

    Users report that the subjective effects of cannabis vary significantly depending on the form consumed. It takes between hours to feel the effects after eating cannabis. When edible products have inconsistent levels of THC even experienced users may find it difficult to regulate the amount consumed. When smoked or vaporized, the effects are usually felt straight away. Cannabis can also come in synthetic form , which may be more harmful than real cannabis.

    There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. Cannabis affects every individual differently.

    Even the same person may have a different experience on separate occasions or over the course of their life. Some of the factors that influence these differences appear to be: The effects of cannabis vary between people, and may even be different for the same person at different times.

    Some people report feelings of relaxation and euphoria while other people report experiences of anxiety and paranoia. The effects of cannabis may be felt immediately if smoked, or within an hour or two if eaten and effects may include: If large amount, strong batch, or concentrated form is consumed, you may be more likely to also experience: Long-term effects are dependent on how much and how often the cannabis is consumed and may also be affected by how the cannabis is consumed e. Those with a family history of mental illness are more likely to also experience anxiety, depression and psychotic symptoms after using cannabis.

    Withdrawal symptoms are generally mild and peak a few days after use has stopped. They gradually disappear within about 2 weeks. Because withdrawal is not as obvious or as painful as withdrawal symptoms from some other drugs such as opioids, many people do not realize that stopping marijuana use can cause withdrawal symptoms.

    Synthetic cannabinoids, which are sometimes also called K2 or Spice, consist of many human-made mind-altering chemicals that are either sprayed on dried, shredded plant material to be smoked, or sold as liquids to be inhaled in e-vaporizers. These chemicals are called cannabinoids because they have chemicals that act on the same brain cell receptors as THC, but are often much more powerful and unpredictable.

    Because of this similarity, synthetic cannabinoids are sometimes misleadingly called "synthetic marijuana" or "fake weed" , and are often labeled "not fit for human consumption. Their effects, like the ingredients, often vary, but emergency rooms report large numbers of young people appearing with rapid heart rates, vomiting, and negative mental responses including hallucinations after using these substances.

    Some states are reporting an increased number of overdose cases involving synthetic cannabinoid products where users are experiencing severe bleeding, likely due to product contamination. Behavioral therapies are available and are similar to those used for treating other drug or alcohol addictions.

    These include motivational enhancement therapies to develop people's own motivation to stay in treatment; cognitive behavioral therapies to teach strategies for avoiding drug use and its triggers and for effectively managing stress ; and motivational incentives, which provide vouchers or small cash rewards for showing up for treatment and staying drug free.

    There are currently no medications approved by the U. However, these medications are not smoked. Parents should be aware of changes in their child's behavior, such as not brushing hair or teeth, skipping showers, changes in mood, and challenging relationships with family members, and a change in friends.

    In addition, changes in grades, skipping classes or missing school, loss of interest in sports or other favorite activities, changes in eating or sleeping habits, and getting in trouble in school or with law enforcement could all be related to drug use—or may indicate other problems.

    See the list of specific warning signs for marijuana use below. Using cutting-edge imaging technology, scientists from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development ABCD Study will look at how childhood experiences, including use of any drugs, interact with each other and with a child's changing biology to affect brain development and social, behavioral, academic, health, and other outcomes.

    As the only study of its kind, the ABCD study will yield critical insights into the foundational aspects of adolescence that shape a person's future.

    These brain images show the reward-related circuity in the cortical and subcortical regions of the brain that tend to be more active when a person is successful at achieving a reward. While all of the images show the regions of the brain that are active to reward, the regions in yellow and red are the most active. Adapted from Casey et al.

    Facts Parents Need to Know. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Skip to main content. Some FAQs about Marijuana. CBT for marijuana dependence is typically delivered in to minute, weekly individual or group counseling sessions; tested CBT interventions have ranged from 6 to14 sessions. Each session involves analysis of recent marijuana use or cravings, development of planned responses to situations that may trigger use or craving, brief training on a coping skill, role-playing or other interactive exercises, and practice assignments.

    Days of use, number of uses per day, dependence symptoms, and problems related to use also fell significantly compared with those measures in the DTC group, and gains were generally maintained throughout the month followup.

    No significant differences were observed between CBT and MET conditions on any of these outcome measures, suggesting that brief motivational interventions may be as effective as longer CBT interventions. However, this study confounded treatment modality group vs.

    A similar study showed that a six-session CBT and a one-session MET treatment, both delivered in individual therapy sessions, produced greater rates of abstinence than DTC, but again little difference was observed between the active treatment groups Copeland et al.

    A positive relation between therapist experience and outcome was reported across both treatment conditions. However, in this trial, MET-CBT was associated with significantly greater long-term abstinence and greater reductions in frequency of marijuana use compared with MET alone.

    Findings generalized across three sites and were not dependent on ethnicity or gender. In an effort to enhance outcomes further, researchers have begun to examine the efficacy of CM for treating marijuana dependence Budney et al. The marijuana CM intervention adapts the abstinence-based voucher approach originally developed and demonstrated effective for treating cocaine dependence Budney and Higgins, ; Higgins et al. The vouchers are contingent on marijuana abstinence, confirmed by twice-weekly drug testing, and their value escalates with each consecutive negative drug test.

    Patients exchange them for prosocial retail items or services that, it is hoped, will serve as alternatives to marijuana use. In a second trial conducted to extend these findings Budney et al.

    The magnitude of the CM incentives was identical to that used in the prior study. This trial produced three notable outcomes. During the following year, the MET-CBT plus CM patient group sustained overall positive outcomes somewhat better than those of the CM group, although differences in abstinence rates were not statistically significant at later followups.

    As in the previous CM trials, patients in the CM and non-CM conditions self-reported similar rates of marijuana use throughout, illustrating the importance of obtaining subjective and objective indices of use. There were three key findings from this trial: Most information on marijuana treatment efficacy among young people derives from trials that have included users of various drugs and have not focused specifically on marijuana use.

    Nevertheless, most patients in these studies have been primary marijuana users. Empirical support for group or individual CBT and family-based treatments has begun to emerge Waldron and Kaminer, The CBT interventions studied have been similar to those studied for adults in scope and duration.

    Specific forms of family-based treatment that have been tested include functional family therapy Waldron et al. Description of these models is beyond the scope of this paper. However, they each involve structured, skills-based interventions for family members and are well described in their respective manuals.

    The largest clinical trial of outpatient treatment for adolescent substance abuse focused on marijuana use Dennis et al. Five treatment models were tested in a multisite study: MET-CBT 5 2 individual and 3 group sessions , MET-CBT 12 2 individual and 10 group sessions , MET-CBT 12 plus family support network 6 parent education group sessions, 4 home visits, and case management , the community reinforcement approach 10 individual sessions focused on behavioral change in drug use and lifestyle change, and 4 parent sessions focused on effective parenting, communication, and problem solving , and MDFT 12 to 15 family systems-focused sessions: Significant decreases in drug use and symptoms of dependence were observed following each of the treatments.

    However, robust between-treatment differences in outcomes were not observed, which unfortunately precludes drawing strong conclusions about their efficacy. Although results were promising compared with prior treatment studies, two-thirds of the youth continued to experience significant substance-related symptoms, suggesting that adolescent treatments can be improved and alternative treatment models should be explored Compton and Pringle, The voucher program was of the same schedule and magnitude as that used in the previously mentioned adult trials by Budney and colleagues.

    However, participants could earn vouchers only if urine toxicology screens were negative for all drugs tested and if parents reported that, to their knowledge, the adolescent had not used any drugs or alcohol. The parenting intervention included a contract that directed parents to provide tangible incentives for abstinence and to deliver negative consequences for continued use.

    Parents also participated in a weekly behavioral training program called Adolescent Transitions Dishion and Kavanagh, , a treatment of choice for adolescents with conduct disorder. Preliminary data from an initial randomized trial suggest that the MET-CBT plus CM improved rates of marijuana abstinence and effectively maintained abstinence post-treatment compared with MET-CBT combined with weekly parent psychoeducational counseling.

    The rates of abstinence achieved appeared greater than those reported in prior studies; however, comparison across trials is problematic because of differences in patient characteristics and differences in the way outcomes are measured. Two other tests of CM with adolescents and young adults have produced promising results.

    A CM abstinence-based voucher program enhanced drug use outcomes and abstinence when added to a potent outpatient therapy i. Lastly, adding incentives for treatment attendance to MET increased treatment participation by young adult marijuana abusers involved with the judicial system, but did not lead to increased marijuana abstinence Sinha et al.

    In summary, a number of behaviorally based interventions appear efficacious for treating adolescent marijuana abuse, and combining interventions like MET, CBT, CM, and family-based programs is likely to enhance efficacy. Sufficient evidence has accumulated to conclude that behaviorally based interventions can help many of those who seek treatment for marijuana use disorders. Even with MET-CBT plus CM, the most highly efficacious treatment for adults, only about one-half of those who enroll in treatment achieve an initial 2-week period of abstinence, and among those who do, approximately one-half resume use within a year Budney et al.

    An additional percentage of adults report a reduction in use and in problems associated with use; however, many adults show no evidence of progress. The treatment outcome data for adolescents paint a similar picture. For example, in the large Cannabis Youth Treatment study, abstinence rates at the end of treatment were only 11 to 15 percent Dennis et al. Clearly, there remains much room for improvement in marijuana outpatient treatment.

    Most clinical issues in treatment for marijuana use disorders parallel those that arise in treatments for other drug use disorders, though sometimes with distinctive aspects. Such secondary marijuana use is commonly viewed as a significant risk factor for relapse or treatment failure, although the empirical support for this is equivocal Epstein and Preston, Some investigators have explored CM-based approaches targeting marijuana use in this clinical population, reasoning that explicit reinforcement or penalty interventions tied to marijuana use may motivate and prompt change in individuals not currently interested in changing.

    Calsyn and Saxon devised a marijuana CM program to function as an adjunct to an existing CM program that required 6 months of urinalysis-confirmed abstinence from all drugs, except for cannabis, in order to earn methadone take-home privileges twice a week. The new intervention simply increased the requirement for obtaining twice-weekly take-home status to include marijuana-negative urinalysis results.

    In this small study, 50 percent of the participants responded to the contingency by stopping their marijuana use, while the other 50 percent accepted curtailment of their take-home privileges and continued to use marijuana. Fifteen patients who tested positive only for marijuana during a 6-month baseline period were informed that, from then on, a positive test for marijuana or any other substance would increase their counseling requirements from 1 hour per week to 4.

    Ten of the patients discontinued marijuana use when informed about the new counseling rule. The other five—who were among the heaviest users—continued to test positive for marijuana and were required to attend the additional counseling sessions.

    Of those, four responded to the intensified counseling, eventually discontinuing use and returning to the lower-level schedule. One patient did not respond and dropped out of treatment. In the cocaine clinic, where many patients do not endorse a goal of stopping marijuana use, the clinician must decide how best to approach this issue without adversely affecting treatment for cocaine dependence Budney, Higgins, and Wong, One study of a small number of patients explored a sequential strategy of initially targeting abstinence from cocaine with an abstinence-based voucher CM program, then targeting marijuana once cocaine abstinence had been achieved Budney et al.

    The rationale for this approach was that the experience of achieving cocaine abstinence and the associated positive effects might increase awareness of how marijuana use negatively affects a prosocial lifestyle. Moreover, an initial success with a voucher program for cocaine might motivate participation in a similar program that targets marijuana. In this study, two participants quit using cocaine during a week voucher program, but continued to use marijuana regularly despite counseling that encouraged abstinence.

    Both entered a second week program that required abstinence from cocaine and marijuana to earn vouchers. Both achieved abstinence from the two drugs and stayed off cocaine throughout a 5-month followup period. Unfortunately, both resumed marijuana use during the followup.

    These studies demonstrate how systematic approaches to secondary marijuana abuse can be implemented without having significant adverse effects on treatment for primary opiate or cocaine abuse. Using stepped care or sequential CM approaches appears effective for initiating abstinence among those ambivalent about stopping their marijuana use.

    However, longer term contingencies or additional interventions may be needed to obtain enduring effects Kidorf et al.

    As noted earlier, many people question whether one can truly become dependent on marijuana. A review of the literature relevant to this issue is beyond our scope here. However, research over the past 10 to 15 years has 1 established a neurobiological basis for a marijuana withdrawal syndrome via an endogenous cannabinoid system in the central nervous system; 2 established the reliability, validity, and time course of a marijuana withdrawal syndrome through human laboratory research and clinical studies; and 3 demonstrated the potential clinical importance of the withdrawal syndrome Budney et al.

    The marijuana withdrawal syndrome resembles those associated with other drugs, particularly tobacco. Patients experience irritability, anger, depression, difficulty sleeping, craving, and decreased appetite. Many indicate that these symptoms adversely impact their attempts to quit and motivate use of marijuana or other drugs for relief Copersino et al.

    Most symptoms begin within 24 to 48 hours of abstinence, peak within 4 to 6 days, and last from 1 to 3 weeks, although significant individual differences occur in withdrawal expression.

    The marijuana withdrawal syndrome does not appear to include major medical or psychiatric consequences and may be considered mild compared with heroin and severe alcohol withdrawal syndromes. Nonetheless, myriad patient reports suggest that additional research to understand and develop effective clinical responses to the withdrawal syndrome may enhance outcomes and promote successful cessation attempts. To date, a handful of human laboratory studies and one small clinical trial on potential pharmacotherapies for marijuana dependence have appeared in the literature Hart, The majority of these efforts have targeted the marijuana withdrawal syndrome.

    Divalproex has also been evaluated in an outpatient placebo-controlled trial Levin et al. Only orally given THC and, to a lesser extent, nefazodone have shown promise. THC reduced craving and ratings of anxiety, feelings of misery, difficulty sleeping, and chills Haney et al.

    In addition, participants could not distinguish active THC from placebo. These findings were replicated in an outpatient study, which found that a moderate oral dosage of THC 10 mg, three times daily suppressed many marijuana withdrawal symptoms and that a higher dosage 30 mg, three times daily almost completely abolished withdrawal symptoms Budney et al.

    Nefazodone decreased ratings of some withdrawal symptoms anxiety and muscle pain , but other ratings irritability, feelings of misery, and difficulty sleeping remained high Haney et al. In summary, the developing literature on pharmacotherapy for marijuana dependence supports further testing of THC, an approach that parallels the use of agonist medications such as methadone and the nicotine patch.

    Continued exploration of compounds that target mood, sleep difficulty, craving, and appetite appears warranted given the potent and reliable symptoms observed in withdrawal studies. Other promising strategies for pharmacotherapies include targeting the underlying physiology of withdrawal—specifically, the decreases in dopamine activity in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway—and treating comorbid disorders such as depression or anxiety. Like users of other drugs of abuse, regular marijuana users have a higher rate of tobacco use than the general population; approximately 50 percent of heavy cannabis users also smoke tobacco Ford, Vu, and Anthony, ; Moore and Budney, Moreover, many adolescents and, to a lesser extent, adults use tobacco and marijuana together, either mixing the substances, smoking blunts hollowed out cigars filled with marijuana , or smoking one immediately after the other.

    At least one study suggests that, among cannabis-dependent individuals, tobacco smokers have worse psychosocial problems and poorer cannabis cessation outcomes Moore and Budney, Whether this indicates that treatments for marijuana dependence should simultaneously address tobacco smoking is not clear.

    No clinical studies have focused on this issue. However, research suggests that treatment that promotes smoking cessation does not disrupt alcohol abstinence and may actually enhance the likelihood of longer-term sobriety Gulliver, Kamholz, and Helstrom, One laboratory study compared withdrawal symptoms during simultaneous cessation of marijuana and tobacco to withdrawal from each substance alone Vandrey et al. Withdrawal was more severe during simultaneous cessation, but the differences were of short duration and not robust, and substantial individual differences were noted.

    Interestingly, five participants rated dual abstinence as the most difficult of the three conditions; four rated cannabis abstinence and three rated tobacco abstinence as the most difficult. The reason simultaneous abstinence was not uniformly experienced as most severe may be that both substances are smoked. Individuals quitting one drug might have had withdrawal intensified by the smoking cues associated with continuing use of the other, while individuals quitting both were spared such cues.

    Should we encourage individuals trying to quit marijuana use to try also to quit tobacco? Certainly we should discuss this option with clients, as tobacco abstinence may make marijuana abstinence easier and increase chances of maintaining marijuana abstinence for a longer term.

    However, as with treatments for other substance dependence disorders, mandating tobacco cessation as a treatment goal might create a barrier to treatment seeking or trigger treatment dropout. Because marijuana is perceived as less harmful than cocaine or heroin, some people suggest that use reduction, instead of abstinence, may be an acceptable clinical goal. Indeed, many individuals who enter treatment are ambivalent about giving up marijuana completely.

    Patient goals were measured again at the end of treatment and repeatedly during a month followup period. Ultimately, the portion desiring to be abstinent declined to 49 percent, while those wishing only for fewer negative effects increased to 26 percent.

    Most notably, patient goals predicted outcomes: The second most frequent outcome among those with abstinence goals was moderation, while the second most frequent outcome among those with moderation goals was continued problematic use. In summary, abstinence goals predicted better outcomes. That said, because the focus of treatment in this study was abstinence, those with moderation goals were not necessarily provided with treatment that best matched their goals.

    Little is known about what constitutes nonharmful use of marijuana, and whether and when moderation may be an appropriate clinical goal for treatment.

    Clinical epidemiological studies clearly demonstrate that many individuals experiment with marijuana, and some even use the drug regularly without reporting significant consequences.

    Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    Marijuana also has a distinctive smell, sometimes described as skunk-like. The short-term effects of marijuana use are also signs of recent use. As the. What does marijuana look and smell like? strains of marijuana is a result of the level of THC they contain—varying from 3% to 20%, on average. Mental health effects: Long-term marijuana use can decrease an individual's performance on. These usage patterns are similar to what's seen among tobacco Legalization may not change much in the life of the typical marijuana user.

    TREATMENT EFFICACY RESEARCH



    Comments

    whiteknight2

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    jvc18

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    sereta44

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    elwooder

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